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dc.contributor.authorSingh, Artien_UK
dc.contributor.authorDobbie, Fionaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorKinnunen, Tarja Ien_UK
dc.contributor.authorOkello, Gabrielen_UK
dc.contributor.authorSemple, Seanen_UK
dc.contributor.authorOkyere, Portia Boakyeen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLogo, Divine Darlingtonen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLartey, Kwabena Fosuen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMcNeil, Annen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBritton, Johnen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBauld, Lindaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorOwusu-Dabo, Ellisen_UK
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: Implementation of and compliance with smoke-free policies (SFPs) can be problematic in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to limited resources. This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Ghana’s SFPs among owners and staff of hospitality venues by city, staff designation, and venue type. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used in venue types including hotels, bars, pubs and restaurants in the three cities of Kumasi, Accra, and Tamale, in Ghana. Data were collected between July and September 2019. Interviewer administered face-to-face surveys were conducted with owners and staff (n=142) recruited from randomly selected hospitality venues (n=154) in these three large cities of Ghana. The relationship between knowledge, opinions, and compliance items on SFPs, and city, venue type and staff designation was first studied using χ2 or a Fisher’s exact test, and then with univariate logistic regression model analysis. Results: Of the 142 respondents, some had heard of Ghana’s 2012 Tobacco Control Act (27.5%), smoking restriction in public places (29%), smoke-free places (22%), and display of ‘no smoking’ signage (6.3%). Knowledge levels were higher in Accra compared to Tamale (OR=3.08; 95% CI: 1.10–8.60). Staff designation and type of venue did not have any relationship with knowledge levels. Support for SFPs was over 80%, but opinions in support of SFPs were lower in Accra than Tamale (OR=0.25; 95% CI: 0.08–0.71). Compliance with SFPs was similar in the three cities. Hotels were three times more compliant compared to bars and pubs (OR=3.16; 95% CI: 1.48–6.71). Conclusions: The study highlights the strong support for restriction of smoking in public places including hospitality venues despite poor knowledge and low compliance levels with the current SFPs. A review of the current SFP in Ghana together with education of hospitality staff on the benefits and requirements of SFPs is recommended.en_UK
dc.publisherEU European Publishingen_UK
dc.relationSingh A, Dobbie F, Kinnunen TI, Okello G, Semple S, Okyere PB, Logo DD, Lartey KF, McNeil A, Britton J, Bauld L & Owusu-Dabo E (2021) Adherence to smoke-free policies in Ghana: Findings from a cross-sectional survey of hospitality venue owners and staff. Tobacco Prevention and Cessation, 7, Art. No.: 4.
dc.rightsPublished by European Publishing on behalf of the European Network for Smoking and Tobacco Prevention (ENSP). © 2021 Singh A. et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License. (
dc.subjecthospitality staffen_UK
dc.subjectsmoke-free policyen_UK
dc.titleAdherence to smoke-free policies in Ghana: Findings from a cross-sectional survey of hospitality venue owners and staffen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleTobacco Prevention and Cessationen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.funderMedical Research Councilen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationKwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technologyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Edinburghen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationTampere Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationAfrican Centre for Clean Airen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute for Social Marketingen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationKwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technologyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationMinistry of Health, Ghanaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationKwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technologyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationKing's College Londonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Nottinghamen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Edinburghen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationKwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technologyen_UK
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