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Appears in Collections:Aquaculture Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Early nutritional programming affects liver transcriptome in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar
Author(s): Vera, LM
Metochis, Christoforos
Taylor, John
Clarkson, Michael
Skjaerven, Kaja H
Migaud, Herve
Tocher, Douglas R
Keywords: Atlantic salmon
nutritional programming
liver transcriptome
plant-based feeds
Issue Date: 17-Nov-2017
Citation: Vera L, Metochis C, Taylor J, Clarkson M, Skjaerven KH, Migaud H & Tocher DR (2017) Early nutritional programming affects liver transcriptome in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, BMC Genomics, 18 (1), Art. No.: 886.
Abstract: Background  To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during early development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon. In the present study we explored the molecular mechanisms occurring in the liver of salmon when challenged with a plant-based diet in order to determine the metabolic processes affected, and the effect of ploidy.  Results  Microarray analysis revealed that nutritional history had a major impact on the expression of genes. Key pathways of intermediary metabolism were up-regulated, including oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, glycolysis and fatty acid metabolism. Other differentially expressed pathways affected by diet included protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, RNA transport, endocytosis and purine metabolism. The interaction between diet and ploidy also had an effect on the hepatic transcriptome of salmon. The biological pathways with the highest number of genes affected by this interaction were related to gene transcription and translation, and cell processes such as proliferation, differentiation, communication and membrane trafficking.  Conclusions  The present study revealed that nutritional programming induced changes in a large number of metabolic processes in Atlantic salmon, which may be associated with the improved fish performance and nutrient utilisation demonstrated previously. In addition, differences between diploid and triploid salmon were found, supporting recent data that indicate nutritional requirements of triploid salmon may differ from those of their diploid counterparts.
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Rights: © The Author(s). 2017 This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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