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Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Topography-driven isolation, speciation and a global increase of endemism with elevation
Author(s): Steinbauer, Manuel J
Field, Richard
Grytnes, John-Arvid
Trigas, Panayiotis
Ah-Peng, Claudine
Attorre, Fabio
Birks, H John B
Borges, Paulo A V
Cardoso, Pedro
Chou, Chang-Hung
De, Sanctis Michele
de, Sequeira Miguel M
Duarte, Maria C
Elias, Rui B
Jump, Alistair
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Keywords: altitude
biogeographic processes
ecological mechanisms
global relationship
latitudinal gradient
mixed-effects models
sky islands
Issue Date: Sep-2016
Citation: Steinbauer MJ, Field R, Grytnes J, Trigas P, Ah-Peng C, Attorre F, Birks HJB, Borges PAV, Cardoso P, Chou C, De Sanctis M, de Sequeira MM, Duarte MC, Elias RB & Jump A (2016) Topography-driven isolation, speciation and a global increase of endemism with elevation, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25 (9), pp. 1097-1107.
Abstract: Aim: Higher-elevation areas on islands and continental mountains tend to be separated by longer distances, predicting higher endemism at higher elevations; our study is the first to test the generality of the predicted pattern. We also compare it empirically with contrasting expectations from hypotheses invoking higher speciation with area, temperature and species richness.  Location: 32 insular and 18 continental elevational gradients from around the world.   Methods: We compiled entire floras with elevation-specific occurrence information, and calculated the proportion of native species that are endemic (‘percent endemism’) in 100 m bands, for each of the 50 elevational gradients. Using generalized linear models, we tested the relationships between percent endemism and elevation, isolation, temperature, area and species richness.  Results: Percent endemism consistently increased monotonically with elevation, globally. This was independent of richness–elevation relationships, which had varying shapes but decreased with elevation at high elevations. The endemism-elevation relationships were consistent with isolationrelated predictions, but inconsistent with hypotheses related to area, richness and temperature.  Main conclusions: Higher per-species speciation rates caused by increasing isolation with elevation are the most plausible and parsimonious explanation for the globally consistent pattern of higher endemism at higher elevations that we identify. We suggest that topography-driven isolation increases speciation rates in mountainous areas, across all elevations, and increasingly towards the equator. If so, it represents a mechanism that may contribute to generating latitudinal diversity gradients in a way that is consistent with both present-day and palaeontological evidence.
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Rights: This item has been embargoed for a period. During the embargo please use the Request a Copy feature to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Steinbauer, M. J., Field, R., Grytnes, J.-A., et. al. (2016), Topography-driven isolation, speciation and a global increase of endemism with elevation. Global Ecol. Biogeogr., 25: 1097–1107, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.
Notes: Additional co-authors: José María Fernández-Palacios, Rosalina Gabriel, Roy E. Gereau, Rosemary G. Gillespie, Josef Greimler, David E.V. Harter, Tsurng-Juhn Huang, Severin D.H. Irl , Daniel Jeanmonod, Anke Jentsch, Christoph Kueffer, Sandra Nogué, Rüdiger Otto, Jonathan Price, Maria M. Romeiras, Dominique Strasberg, Tod Stuessy, Jens-Christian Svenning, Ole R. Vetaas, Carl Beierkuhnlein

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