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dc.contributor.authorBashir-Tanoli, Sumayiaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorTinsley, M Cen_UK
dc.description.abstract1. Evolutionary ecologists frequently argue that parasite defence is costly because resources must be reallocated from other life-history traits to fuel the immune response. However, this hypothesis is rarely explicitly tested. An alternative possibility is that immune responses impair an organism's ability to acquire the resources it needs to support metabolism. Here, we disentangle these opposing hypotheses for why the activation costs of parasite resistance arise. 2. We studied fecundity costs associated with immune stimulation in Drosophila melanogaster. Then, by measuring correlated changes in metabolic rate, food consumption and body weight, we assessed whether responses were consistent with immunity costs originating from altered resource allocation or from impaired resource acquisition. 3. Microbial injection resulted in a 45% fecundity decrease. It also triggered a mean decline in metabolic rate of 6% and a mean reduction in food intake of 31%; body weight was unaffected. Metabolic rate downregulation was greater in males than in females, whereas declines in food ingestion were of similar magnitude in both sexes. These physiological shifts did not depend on whether microbial challenges were alive or dead, thus they resulted from immune system activation not pathogenesis. 4. These costs of immune activation are significant for individuals that successfully resist infection and might also occur in other situations when immune responses are upregulated without infection. 5. Whilst we found significant activation costs of resistance, our data provide no compelling evidence for the popularly argued hypothesis that immune deployment is costly because of reallocation of energetic resources to the immune system. Instead, reduction in resource acquisition due to ‘infection-induced anorexia' may be the principal driver of metabolic changes and fecundity costs resulting from immune response activation.en_UK
dc.relationBashir-Tanoli S & Tinsley MC (2014) Immune response costs are associated with changes in resource acquisition and not resource reallocation. Functional Ecology, 28 (4), pp. 1011-1019.
dc.rightsThis item has been embargoed for a period. During the embargo please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study. Publisher policy allows this work to be made available in this repository. Published in Functional Ecology, Volume 28, Issue 4, pages 1011–1019, August 2014 by Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12236. The definitive version is available at www.onlinelibrary.wiley.comen_UK
dc.subjectDrosophila melanogasteren_UK
dc.subjectenergetic trade-offen_UK
dc.subjectinfection-induced anorexiaen_UK
dc.subjectlife historyen_UK
dc.subjectmetabolic rateen_UK
dc.subjectparasite resistanceen_UK
dc.titleImmune response costs are associated with changes in resource acquisition and not resource reallocationen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.rights.embargoreason[Author pdf Bashir 2014 Funct Ecol.pdf] Publisher requires embargo of 12 months after formal publication.en_UK
dc.citation.jtitleFunctional Ecologyen_UK
dc.type.statusAM - Accepted Manuscripten_UK
dc.contributor.funderPakistan Education Commission Pakistanen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Stirlingen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorBashir-Tanoli, Sumayia|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorTinsley, M C|0000-0002-7715-1259en_UK
local.rioxx.projectB/Estt.(T)/2007|Pakistan Education Commission Pakistan|en_UK
local.rioxx.filenameAuthor pdf Bashir 2014 Funct Ecol.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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