Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Appears in Collections:Management, Work and Organisation Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: How Are Personality Judgments Made? A Cognitive Model of Reference Group Effects, Personality Scale Responses, and Behavioral Reactions
Author(s): Wood, Alex M
Brown, Gordon D A
Maltby, John
Watkinson, Pat
Contact Email:
Keywords: Psychology, Cognitive Science
Issue Date: Oct-2012
Date Deposited: 22-Apr-2013
Citation: Wood AM, Brown GDA, Maltby J & Watkinson P (2012) How Are Personality Judgments Made? A Cognitive Model of Reference Group Effects, Personality Scale Responses, and Behavioral Reactions. Journal of Personality, 80 (5), pp. 1275-1311.
Abstract: This article suggests that personality judgments are wholly relative, being the outcome of a comparison of a given individual to a reference group of others. The underlying comparison processes are the same as those used to judge psychophysical stimuli (as outlined by range frequency theory and decision by sampling accounts). Five experimental studies show that the same person's personality is rated differently depending on how his or her behavior (a) ranks within a reference group and (b) falls within the overall range of behavior shown by other reference group members. Results were invariant across stimulus type and response options (7-point Likert scale, 990-point allocation task, or dichotomous choice). Simulated occupational scenarios led participants to give different-sized bonuses and employ different people as a function of context. Future research should note that personality judgments (as in self-report personality scales) only represent perceived standing relative to others or alternatively should measure personality through behavior or biological reactivity. Personality judgments cannot be used to compare different populations when the population participants have different reference groups (as in cross-cultural research).
DOI Link: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00763.x
Rights: The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.
Licence URL(s):

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Wood_2012_How_Are_Personality_Judgments_Made.pdfFulltext - Published Version270.08 kBAdobe PDFUnder Embargo until 3000-01-01    Request a copy

Note: If any of the files in this item are currently embargoed, you can request a copy directly from the author by clicking the padlock icon above. However, this facility is dependent on the depositor still being contactable at their original email address.

This item is protected by original copyright

Items in the Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

The metadata of the records in the Repository are available under the CC0 public domain dedication: No Rights Reserved

If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.