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dc.contributor.authorWood, Alex M-
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Gordon D A-
dc.contributor.authorMaltby, John-
dc.contributor.authorWatkinson, Pat-
dc.description.abstractThis article suggests that personality judgments are wholly relative, being the outcome of a comparison of a given individual to a reference group of others. The underlying comparison processes are the same as those used to judge psychophysical stimuli (as outlined by range frequency theory and decision by sampling accounts). Five experimental studies show that the same person's personality is rated differently depending on how his or her behavior (a) ranks within a reference group and (b) falls within the overall range of behavior shown by other reference group members. Results were invariant across stimulus type and response options (7-point Likert scale, 990-point allocation task, or dichotomous choice). Simulated occupational scenarios led participants to give different-sized bonuses and employ different people as a function of context. Future research should note that personality judgments (as in self-report personality scales) only represent perceived standing relative to others or alternatively should measure personality through behavior or biological reactivity. Personality judgments cannot be used to compare different populations when the population participants have different reference groups (as in cross-cultural research).en_UK
dc.publisherWiley-Blackwell for Wiley Periodicals-
dc.relationWood AM, Brown GDA, Maltby J & Watkinson P (2012) How Are Personality Judgments Made? A Cognitive Model of Reference Group Effects, Personality Scale Responses, and Behavioral Reactions, Journal of Personality, 80 (5), pp. 1275-1311.-
dc.rightsThe publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.-
dc.subject.lcshPsychology, Cognitive Science-
dc.titleHow Are Personality Judgments Made? A Cognitive Model of Reference Group Effects, Personality Scale Responses, and Behavioral Reactionsen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.rights.embargoreasonThe publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository therefore there is an embargo on the full text of the work.-
dc.citation.jtitleJournal of Personality-
dc.type.statusPublisher version (final published refereed version)-
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Warwick-
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Leicester-
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Manchester-
Appears in Collections:Management, Work and Organisation Journal Articles

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