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Appears in Collections:Faculty of Social Sciences Book Chapters and Sections
Title: Sporadic democracy: Education, democracy and the question of inclusion
Author(s): Biesta, G J J
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Editor(s): Katz, M
Verducci, S
Biesta, Gert
Citation: Biesta GJJ (2009) Sporadic democracy: Education, democracy and the question of inclusion. In: Katz M, Verducci S, Biesta Gert (ed.). Education, Democracy and the Moral Life, New York: Springer, pp. 101-112.
Keywords: democracy
democratic education
citizenship education inclusion
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: In this paper I take up the question of the relationship between democracy and inclusion. I present the deliberative turn in democratic theory as an attempt to overcome ‘external exclusion’ and discuss Iris Young’s work as an attempt to overcome ‘internal exclusions.’ I argue that although attempts to make democracy more inclusive are laudable, they are ultimately based upon a colonial conception of democratisation, one in which inclusion is seen as a process where those who are already on the inside include others into their sphere. I use the work of Jacques Rancière to argue for an understanding of democratisation as the interruption of the existing political order from the outside in the name of equality. This can not only help us to think differently about the role of inclusion in democracy. It also urges us to see that there are opportunities for the democratisation of education that lie beyond the inclusion of ‘newcomers’ into the existing democratic order.
Rights: Published in Education, Democracy and the Moral Life by Springer. The original publication is available at

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