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dc.contributor.authorLittle, Anthonyen_UK
dc.contributor.authorJones, Benedict Cen_UK
dc.contributor.authorWaitt, Corrien_UK
dc.contributor.authorTiddeman, Bernard Pen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFeinberg, David Ren_UK
dc.contributor.authorPerrett, David Ien_UK
dc.contributor.authorApicella, Coren Len_UK
dc.contributor.authorMarlowe, Frank Wen_UK
dc.description.abstractSummary Background Many animals both display and assess multiple signals. Two prominently studied traits are symmetry and sexual dimorphism, which, for many animals, are proposed cues to heritable fitness benefits. These traits are associated with other potential benefits, such as fertility. In humans, the face has been extensively studied in terms of attractiveness. Faces have the potential to be advertisements of mate quality and both symmetry and sexual dimorphism have been linked to the attractiveness of human face shape. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that measurements of symmetry and sexual dimorphism from faces are related in humans, both in Europeans and African hunter-gatherers, and in a non-human primate. Using human judges, symmetry measurements were also related to perceived sexual dimorphism. In all samples, symmetric males had more masculine facial proportions and symmetric females had more feminine facial proportions. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the claim that sexual dimorphism and symmetry in faces are signals advertising quality by providing evidence that there must be a biological mechanism linking the two traits during development. Such data also suggests that the signalling properties of faces are universal across human populations and are potentially phylogenetically old in primates.en_UK
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_UK
dc.relationLittle A, Jones BC, Waitt C, Tiddeman BP, Feinberg DR, Perrett DI, Apicella CL & Marlowe FW (2008) Symmetry Is Related to Sexual Dimorphism in Faces: Data Across Culture and Species. PLoS ONE, 3 (5), p. e2106.
dc.rightsPublished by The Public Library of Science (PLoS). PLoS applies the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL) to all works they publish (read the human-readable summary at: or the full license legal code at: Under the CCAL, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their article, but authors allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, and/or copy articles in PLoS journals, so long as the original authors and source are cited.en_UK
dc.subjectFace Anatomyen_UK
dc.subjectSexual attractionen_UK
dc.subjectMate selectionen_UK
dc.titleSymmetry Is Related to Sexual Dimorphism in Faces: Data Across Culture and Speciesen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitlePLoS ONEen_UK
dc.type.statusAM - Accepted Manuscripten_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Aberdeenen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Oxforden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of St Andrewsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationMcMaster Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of St Andrewsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationHarvard Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationFlorida State Universityen_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorLittle, Anthony|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorJones, Benedict C|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorWaitt, Corri|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorTiddeman, Bernard P|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFeinberg, David R|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorPerrett, David I|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorApicella, Coren L|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMarlowe, Frank W|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles

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