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dc.contributor.authorPeat, Jamesen_UK
dc.contributor.authorDarvill, Benen_UK
dc.contributor.authorEllis, Jonathanen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGoulson, Daveen_UK
dc.description.abstract1. In contrast to other social bees, bumble-bees exhibit considerable size variation within the worker caste. This size variation has not been adequately explained, although it is known that larger workers tend to be foragers and smaller bees spend more time in the nest. We quantify size variation and mean size for foragers of 22 bumble-bee species inhabiting climates ranging from arctic and montane to the lowland tropics. 2. Mean size was larger in bee species from cold climates compared with temperate bumble-bees. Within species, individuals from Scotland tended to be larger than those from southern England. However, tropical bumble-bees (mostly belonging to the subgenus Fervidobombus) were largest of all. We suggest that although a lower limit to size may be imposed by inhabiting cold climates, overheating does not constrain large size in bumble-bees from hot climates, perhaps because they have efficient mechanisms for heat loss through shunting heat to their extremities. 3. Tropical bees had shorter thoracic setae than species from cooler climates, while B. terrestris from Greece had shorter setae than those from southern UK. Presumably shorter setae enhance heat loss in warm climates. 4. Larger workers of B. terrestris were found to have smaller extremities, in proportion to their size, than small workers. We suggest that heat retention is more important in large bees that spend more of their time foraging, than in small bees which spend much of their time in the nest where incubation of the brood requires them to lose heat. 5. In the temperate climate of southern UK, we found no evidence for ambient temperature having a differential effect on activity of workers of B. terrestris according to their size. We suggest that, at least in temperate climates, size variation in bumble-bee foragers is probably not an adaptation to temperature variation. Instead it may improve colony foraging efficiency since foragers of different sizes are suited to, and tend to visit, different flower species.en_UK
dc.relationPeat J, Darvill B, Ellis J & Goulson D (2005) Effects of climate on intra- and interspecific size variation in bumble-bees. Functional Ecology, 19 (1), pp. 145-151.
dc.rightsThe publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.en_UK
dc.titleEffects of climate on intra- and interspecific size variation in bumble-beesen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.rights.embargoreason[peat_functionalecology_2005.pdf] The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository therefore there is an embargo on the full text of the work.en_UK
dc.citation.jtitleFunctional Ecologyen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Southamptonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Southamptonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorPeat, James|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorDarvill, Ben|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorEllis, Jonathan|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGoulson, Dave|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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