|Appears in Collections:||Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles|
|Peer Review Status:||Refereed|
|Title:||The evolutionary significance of bimodal emergence in the butterfly, Maniola- jurtina (Lepidoptera: satyrinae) (L)|
|Citation:||Goulson D (1993) The evolutionary significance of bimodal emergence in the butterfly, Maniola-jurtina (Lepidoptera: satyrinae) (L), Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 49 (2), pp. 127-139.|
|Abstract:||Most temperate butterflies exhibit a tightly synchronized unimodal adult emergence to facilitate mate location. Exceptions are presumably subject to unusual selection pressure. This study examines the pattern of emergence in Maniola jurtina, which was found to exhibit both unimodal and bimodal emergence patterns at different sites in south-east England. The bimodal pattern was found on chalk grassland; elsewhere the emergence was unimodal. Adults from each emergence peak rarely meet, suggesting that there may be some degree of reproductive isolation. Morphological measurements and electrophoretic analysis of allozyme frequencies are carried out to quantify differentiation between emergence peaks. Captive stock was reared to examine differences in the immature stages. Butterflies from each emergence differ significantly in most morphological variables measured, those from the second peak tending to be smaller. The immature stages differ in morphology and longevity of the egg stage. Allozyme frequencies did not differ between peaks, suggesting that they are not reproductively isolated. Explanations for the maintenance of differences between emergence peaks despite gene flow are discussed. I propose that division of offspring between two emergence times may have evolved to avoid the risk inherent in placing all offspring in one peak which may be rendered inviable by temporal fluctuations in habitat quality.|
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