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Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Is it feasible to use optical brightener technology with a Baculovirus bioinsecticide for resource-poor maize farmers in mesoamerica?
Author(s): Martinez, Ana-Mabel
Goulson, Dave
Chapman, Jason W
Caballero, Primitivo
Cave, Ronald D
Williams, Trevor
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Keywords: Spodoptera frugiperda
nuclear polyhedrosis virus
Tinopal LPW
cost analysis
Issue Date: Feb-2000
Citation: Martinez A, Goulson D, Chapman JW, Caballero P, Cave RD & Williams T (2000) Is it feasible to use optical brightener technology with a Baculovirus bioinsecticide for resource-poor maize farmers in mesoamerica?, Biological Control, 17 (2), pp. 174-181.
Abstract: Stilbene-derived optical brighteners greatly enhance the infectivity of a number of baculoviruses. This technology has been patented for use with insect pathogenic viruses in the United States and Canada. A baculovirus is currently being tested for its potential as a biological insecticide of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the principal insect pest of maize in Mesoamerica. A multiply embedded nucleopolyhedrovirus isolate originally from Nicaragua was bioassayed alone and in the presence of the optical brightener Tinopal LPW (1%), using second instar S. frugiperda larvae. The LC50 value of the virus alone was calculated at 82.1 polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIBs)/mm2 of diet compared with 0.71 PIBs/mm2 in the presence of Tinopal LPW. In contrast to other studies, the mean time to death of larvae exposed to virus and Tinopal LPW was significantly extended compared to larvae inoculated with virus alone. Analysis of the results of eight independent field trials in Mexico and Honduras revealed a significant positive relationship between log virus dose and percentage mortality observed in S. frugiperda larvae. Virus-induced mortality was approximately 50% at the highest application rate tested: 1000 larval equivalents (LE) of virus/ha. When the impact of parasitism was taken into account, larval mortality increased to 45.0–90.7% in plots treated with virus at 250 LE/ha or more. A cost analysis indicated that approximately 60% pest control can be achieved as a conservative estimate with virus application and the action of parasitoids for the price of a chemical insecticide. Formulating the virus with an optical brightener appears to be an attractive option based on laboratory findings but requires field testing. The use of optical brightener technology will probably be feasible for maize growers in Mesoamerica only if it is highly effective at very low concentrations (<0.1%) or the volume of the virus application can be reduced.
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