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Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Evolving Particles in the 2022 Hunga Tonga—Hunga Ha'apai Volcano Eruption Plume
Author(s): Kahn, Ralph A
Limbacher, James A
Junghenn Noyes, Katherine T
Flower, Verity J B
Zamora, Lauren M
McKee, Kathleen F
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Issue Date: 16-Jun-2024
Date Deposited: 11-Jun-2024
Citation: Kahn RA, Limbacher JA, Junghenn Noyes KT, Flower VJB, Zamora LM & McKee KF (2024) Evolving Particles in the 2022 Hunga Tonga—Hunga Ha'apai Volcano Eruption Plume. <i>Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres</i>, 129 (11), Art. No.: e2023JD039963.
Abstract: The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite observed the Hunga Tonga—Hunga Ha’apai (HTHH) 15 January eruption plume on seven occasions between 15 and 23 January 2022. From the MISR multi-angle, multi-spectral imagery we retrieve aerosol plume height geometrically, along with plume-level motion vectors, and derive radiometrically constraints on particle effective size, shape, and light-absorption properties. Parts of two downwind aerosol layers were observed in different places and times, one concentrated in the upper troposphere (11-18 km ASL), and a mid-stratosphere layer ~23 – 30+ km ASL. After the initial day (1/15), the retrievals identified only spherical, non-light-absorbing particles, typical of volcanic sulfate/water particles. The near-tropopause plume particles show constant, medium-small (several tenths of a micron) effective size over four days. The mid-stratosphere particles were consistently smaller, but retrieved effective particle size increased between 1/17 and 1/23, though they might have decreased slightly on 1/22. As a vast amount of water was also injected into the stratosphere by this eruption, models predicted relatively rapid growth of sulfate particles from the modest amounts of SO2 gas injected by the eruption to high altitudes along with the water (Zhu et al, 2022). MISR observations up to ten days after the eruption are consistent with these model predictions. The possible decrease in stratospheric particle size after initial growth was likely caused by evaporation, as the plume mixed with drier, ambient air. Particles in the lower-elevation plume observed on 1/15 were larger than all the downwind aerosols and contained significant non-spherical (likely ash) particles.
DOI Link: 10.1029/2023jd039963
Rights: An edited version of this paper was published by AGU. Published 2024 American Geophysical Union. Kahn, R. A., Limbacher, J. A., Junghenn Noyes, K. T., Flower, V. J. B., Zamora, L. M., & McKee, K. F. (2024). Evolving particles in the 2022 Hunga Tonga—Hunga Ha'apai volcano eruption plume. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 129, e2023JD039963. To view the published open abstract, go to
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