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dc.contributor.authorElsheshtawy, Ahmeden_UK
dc.contributor.authorClokie, Benjamin Gregory Jamesen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAlbalat, Amayaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorNylund, Areen_UK
dc.contributor.authorIsaksen, Trond Einaren_UK
dc.contributor.authorNapsøy Indrebø, Elisabethen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAndersen, Lindaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMoore, Lindsey Janeen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMacKenzie, Simonen_UK
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: Net biofouling has a significant impact for the global salmon industry in the seawater grow-out stage in terms of its management. Current mitigation strategies occur primarily through the regular removal of biofouling using in situ cleaning. While in situ net cleaning is effective there is uncertainty as to whether the equipment or dispersed material has an impact upon the fish in the cages. Through direct contact with the environment, the significant surface area of the gill including its microbiome is directly exposed to the acute environmental changes generated by net cleaning. This study aimed to provide a detailed understanding of the impact of in situ net cleaning on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill health. Methods: Three field trials were conducted on commercial fish farms in western Norway. Fouling organisms on net pens and flushed particles during in situ cleaning were identified and screened for major fish pathogens. Hydrographic profile measurements were performed to measure the impact on water quality. Gill samples were examined for histopathological changes, immune gene expression, and the prevalence of major pathogens. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was employed to explore the impact of net cleaning on gill microbiome. Results and discussion: Data obtained from these trials identified a diversity of fouling species including hydroids, algae, skeleton shrimps, and filter feeders on net pens, a direct impact on measured water quality indicators, a moderate change in gill inflammatory and antigen presentation activity at the level of mRNA, and a large significant change in gill microbiome. Observed changes in gill microbial community involved a decrease in bacterial richness coupled to an increase in identified bacterial genera related to negative health consequences. Parallel analyses for pathogens load in biofouling organisms and flushed particles highlighted the presence of several fish bacteria and parasites. However, minor changes were detected in salmon gill pathogen diversity and loading. Our results suggest that biofouling organisms may act as transient reservoirs for some fish pathogens but not viruses and that gill microbial dysbiosis could be related to the host stress response during and post net cleaning.en_UK
dc.publisherFrontiers Media SAen_UK
dc.relationElsheshtawy A, Clokie BGJ, Albalat A, Nylund A, Isaksen TE, Napsøy Indrebø E, Andersen L, Moore LJ & MacKenzie S (2023) Net cleaning impacts Atlantic salmon gill health through microbiome dysbiosis. <i>Frontiers in Aquaculture</i>, 2.
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.en_UK
dc.subjectGill microbiomeen_UK
dc.subjectImmune responseen_UK
dc.subjectSalmo salaren_UK
dc.subjectOncorhynchus mykissen_UK
dc.titleNet cleaning impacts Atlantic salmon gill health through microbiome dysbiosisen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleFrontiers in Aquacultureen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.funderFHF The Norwegian Seafood Research Funden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute of Aquacultureen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute of Aquacultureen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute of Aquacultureen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Bergenen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNORCE - Norwegian Research Centre ASen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Bergenen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Bergenen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Bergenen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute of Aquacultureen_UK
dc.relation.funderprojectImpact of Net Cleaning and Sea Lice treatment upon Gill Health in Salmonen_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorElsheshtawy, Ahmed|0000-0003-3811-4997en_UK
local.rioxx.authorClokie, Benjamin Gregory James|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAlbalat, Amaya|0000-0002-8606-2995en_UK
local.rioxx.authorNylund, Are|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorIsaksen, Trond Einar|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorNapsøy Indrebø, Elisabeth|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAndersen, Linda|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMoore, Lindsey Jane|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMacKenzie, Simon|0000-0003-1845-6826en_UK
local.rioxx.project901514|The Norwegian Seafood Research Fund|en_UK
local.rioxx.filenamenet cleaning.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Aquaculture Journal Articles

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