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dc.contributor.authorTan, Chao Dunen_UK
dc.contributor.authorHähner, Georgen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFitzer, Susanen_UK
dc.contributor.authorCole, Catherineen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFinch, Adrian A.en_UK
dc.contributor.authorHintz, Chrisen_UK
dc.contributor.authorHintz, Kenen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAllison, Nicolaen_UK
dc.description.abstractOcean acidification typically reduces coral calcification rates and can fundamentally alter skeletal morphology. We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and microindentation to determine how seawater pCO2 affects skeletal structure and Vickers hardness in a Porites lutea coral. At 400 µatm, the skeletal fasciculi are composed of tightly packed bundles of acicular crystals composed of quadrilateral nanograins, approximately 80–300 nm in dimensions. We interpret high adhesion at the nanograin edges as an organic coating. At 750 µatm the crystals are less regular in width and orientation and composed of either smaller/more rounded nanograins than observed at 400 µatm or of larger areas with little variation in adhesion. Coral aragonite may form via ion-by-ion attachment to the existing skeleton or via conversion of amorphous calcium carbonate precursors. Changes in nanoparticle morphology could reflect variations in the sizes of nanoparticles produced by each crystallization pathway or in the contributions of each pathway to biomineralization. We observe no significant variation in Vickers hardness between skeletons cultured at different seawater pCO2. Either the nanograin size does not affect skeletal hardness or the effect is offset by other changes in the skeleton, e.g. increases in skeletal organic material as reported in previous studies.en_UK
dc.publisherThe Royal Societyen_UK
dc.relationTan CD, Hähner G, Fitzer S, Cole C, Finch AA, Hintz C, Hintz K & Allison N (2023) The response of coral skeletal nano structure and hardness to ocean acidification conditions. <i>Royal Society Open Science</i>, 10 (8).
dc.rights© 2023 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.en_UK
dc.titleThe response of coral skeletal nano structure and hardness to ocean acidification conditionsen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleRoyal Society Open Scienceen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.funderNatural Environment Research Councilen_UK
dc.contributor.funderScottish Funding Councilen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of St Andrewsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of St Andrewsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute of Aquacultureen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of St Andrewsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of St Andrewsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSavannah State Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationGeorge Mason Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of St Andrewsen_UK
dc.subject.tagAquaculture and Climate Changeen_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorTan, Chao Dun|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHähner, Georg|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFitzer, Susan|0000-0003-3556-7624en_UK
local.rioxx.authorCole, Catherine|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFinch, Adrian A.|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHintz, Chris|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHintz, Ken|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAllison, Nicola|0000-0003-3720-1917en_UK
local.rioxx.projectProject ID unknown|Natural Environment Research Council|
local.rioxx.projectProject ID unknown|Scottish Funding Council|
local.rioxx.filenameThe response of coral skeletal nano structure and hardness to ocean acidification conditions.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Aquaculture Journal Articles

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