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dc.contributor.authorFukushima, Takehikoen_UK
dc.contributor.authorSetiawan, Fajaren_UK
dc.contributor.authorSubehi, Lukien_UK
dc.contributor.authorJiang, Dalinen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMatsushita, Bunkeien_UK
dc.description.abstractIn 2014, 2018 and 2021, we measured the vertical distributions of several water quality indicators in Lake Toba, a representative large tropical lake. This lake has a north basin (NB) and south basin (SB), connected by a strait. Similar water temperature profiles were observed in both basins, showing increasing trends. Shoaling of hypolimnetic DO (dissolved oxygen)-deficient waters was clearly observed in both basins except in the period from 2018 to 2021 during which the zero DO layer deepened in the SB. In 2014 and 2018, the middle-layer maximums (or minimums) of DO were found in the NB while the SB showed a monotonously downward decreasing tendency. Middle-layer minimums of electric conductivity adjusted to 25 °C (EC25) corresponded to the middle-layer DO maximums in the NB; significantly negative correlations between DO and EC25 were found in both basins. Based on horizontal distributions of EC25, water quality difference between the basins using satellite imagery and gradual change in the DO-EC25 relation, we consider the flow of hypolimnetic water from SB to NB and/or influence of worse water quality near the bottom of the strait with reference to the different behaviors of DO and EC25.en_UK
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLCen_UK
dc.relationFukushima T, Setiawan F, Subehi L, Jiang D & Matsushita B (2023) Water temperature and some water quality in Lake Toba, a tropical volcanic lake. <i>Limnology</i>, 24 (1), pp. 61-69.
dc.rightsThe publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.en_UK
dc.subjectTropical deep lakeen_UK
dc.subjectVertical distributionen_UK
dc.subjectElectric conductivityen_UK
dc.subjectHypolimnetic water movementen_UK
dc.titleWater temperature and some water quality in Lake Toba, a tropical volcanic lakeen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.rights.embargoreason[Fukushima et al. 2022.pdf] The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository therefore there is an embargo on the full text of the work.en_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Tsukubaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationIndonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationIndonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Tsukubaen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorFukushima, Takehiko|0000-0003-2494-309Xen_UK
local.rioxx.authorSetiawan, Fajar|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorSubehi, Luki|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorJiang, Dalin|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMatsushita, Bunkei|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
local.rioxx.filenameFukushima et al. 2022.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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