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dc.contributor.authorSoldati, Adrianen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFedurek, Pawelen_UK
dc.contributor.authorDezecache, Guillaumeen_UK
dc.contributor.authorCall, Josepen_UK
dc.contributor.authorZuberbühler, Klausen_UK
dc.description.abstractAudience effects are key in studies of animal social cognition and are typically investigated during directed social interactions. Male chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, regularly perform aggressive displays in the presence of others, often targeting a specific group member, and combine this agonistic behaviour with acoustic signals. Here, we were interested in whether the production and structure of pant hoots, a long-distance signal, were influenced by audience composition (i.e. presence and absence of specific individuals). We investigated pant hoots produced during displays by adult and subadult males of Budongo Forest, Uganda. We found that males overall called more often when their preferred social partners and females were absent from the party, as well as when more dominant males were present. We then separately analysed the four phases of pant hoots, introduction, build-up, climax and let-down, and found that audience composition and social context could often explain the presence or absence of each phase. In addition, displays were often accompanied by drumming, especially by older males and when male audiences were small. Our study adds to the growing body of literature on audience effects and other social factors and shows their impact on the structure of a sophisticated vocal sequence, which enhances the communicative capacity in a species with limited vocal control.en_UK
dc.publisherElsevier BVen_UK
dc.relationSoldati A, Fedurek P, Dezecache G, Call J & Zuberbühler K (2022) Audience sensitivity in chimpanzee display pant hoots. Animal Behaviour, 190, pp. 23-40.
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY license (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. You are not required to obtain permission to reuse this article.en_UK
dc.subjectacoustic signalen_UK
dc.subjectaudience effecten_UK
dc.subjectPan troglodytes schweinfurthiien_UK
dc.subjectvocal communicationen_UK
dc.titleAudience sensitivity in chimpanzee display pant hootsen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleAnimal Behaviouren_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of St Andrewsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBudongo Conservation Field Stationen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of St Andrewsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of St Andrewsen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorSoldati, Adrian|0000-0002-3618-5022en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFedurek, Pawel|0000-0002-6902-708Xen_UK
local.rioxx.authorDezecache, Guillaume|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorCall, Josep|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorZuberbühler, Klaus|0000-0001-8378-088Xen_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
local.rioxx.filenameSoldati et al 2022_Audience sensitivity in chimpanzee display pant hoots.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles

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