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dc.contributor.authorEpton, Tracyen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGhio, Danielaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBallard, Lisa Men_UK
dc.contributor.authorAllen, Sarah Fen_UK
dc.contributor.authorKassianos, Angelos Pen_UK
dc.contributor.authorHewitt, Rachaelen_UK
dc.contributor.authorSwainston, Katherineen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFynn, Wendy Ireneen_UK
dc.contributor.authorRowland, Vickieen_UK
dc.contributor.authorWestbrook, Julietteen_UK
dc.contributor.authorJenkinson, Elizabethen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMorrow, Alisonen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMcGeechan, Grant Jen_UK
dc.contributor.authorStanescu, Sabinaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorSwanson, Vivienen_UK
dc.description.abstractObjectives Physical distancing, defined as keeping 1–2m apart when co-located, can prevent cases of droplet or aerosol transmitted infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV2. During the COVID-19 pandemic, distancing was a recommendation or a requirement in many countries. This systematic review aimed to determine which interventions and behavior change techniques (BCTs) are effective in promoting adherence to distancing and through which potential mechanisms of action (MOAs). Methods Six databases were searched. The review included studies that were (a) conducted on humans, (b) reported physical distancing interventions, (c) included any comparator (e.g., pre-intervention versus post-intervention; randomized controlled trial), and (d) reported actual distancing or predictors of distancing behavior. Risk of bias was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. BCTs and potential MoAs were identified in each intervention. Results Six articles (with seven studies and 19 comparisons) indicated that distancing interventions could successfully change MoAs and behavior. Successful BCTs (MoAs) included feedback on behavior (e.g., motivation); information about health consequences, salience of health consequences (e.g., beliefs about consequences), demonstration (e.g., beliefs about capabilities), and restructuring the physical environment (e.g., environmental context and resources). The most promising interventions were proximity buzzers, directional systems, and posters with loss-framed messages that demonstrated the behaviors. Conclusions The evidence indicates several BCTs and potential MoAs that should be targeted in interventions and highlights gaps that should be the focus of future research.en_UK
dc.relationEpton T, Ghio D, Ballard LM, Allen SF, Kassianos AP, Hewitt R, Swainston K, Fynn WI, Rowland V, Westbrook J, Jenkinson E, Morrow A, McGeechan GJ, Stanescu S & Swanson V (2022) Interventions to promote physical distancing behaviour during infectious disease pandemics or epidemics: A systematic review. Social Science and Medicine, 303, Art. No.: 114946.
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY license (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. You are not required to obtain permission to reuse this article.en_UK
dc.subjectSystematic reviewen_UK
dc.subjectPhysical distancingen_UK
dc.subjectSocial distancingen_UK
dc.titleInterventions to promote physical distancing behaviour during infectious disease pandemics or epidemics: A systematic reviewen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleSocial Science and Medicineen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.funderEconomic and Social Research Councilen_UK
dc.description.notesAdditional co-authors: Aysha A. Yousuf, Nisha Sharma, Suhana Begum, Eleni Karasouli, Daniel Scanlan. Gillian W. Shorter, Madelynne A. Arden, Christopher J. Armitage, Daryl B. O'Connor, Atiya Kamal, Emily McBride, Jo Hart, Lucie Byrne-Davis, Angel Chater, John Druryen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Manchesteren_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Manchesteren_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Southamptonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Teessideen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity College Londonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationCardiff Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Teessideen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity College Londonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationPublic Health Englanden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Bathen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of the West of Englanden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNHS Fifeen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Teessideen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Southamptonen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorEpton, Tracy|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGhio, Daniela|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBallard, Lisa M|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAllen, Sarah F|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorKassianos, Angelos P|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHewitt, Rachael|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorSwainston, Katherine|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFynn, Wendy Irene|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorRowland, Vickie|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorWestbrook, Juliette|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorJenkinson, Elizabeth|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMorrow, Alison|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMcGeechan, Grant J|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorStanescu, Sabina|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorSwanson, Vivien|0000-0002-1685-2991en_UK
local.rioxx.projectProject ID unknown|Economic and Social Research Council|
Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles

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