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dc.contributor.authorWetherall, Karenen_UK
dc.contributor.authorCleare, Seonaiden_UK
dc.contributor.authorMcClelland, Heatheren_UK
dc.contributor.authorMelson, Ambrose Jen_UK
dc.contributor.authorNiedzwiedz, Claire Len_UK
dc.contributor.authorO'Carroll, Ronan Een_UK
dc.contributor.authorO'Connor, Daryl Ben_UK
dc.contributor.authorPlatt, Steveen_UK
dc.contributor.authorScowcroft, Elizabethen_UK
dc.contributor.authorWatson, Billyen_UK
dc.contributor.authorZortea, Tiagoen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFerguson, Eamonnen_UK
dc.contributor.authorRobb, Kathryn Aen_UK
dc.contributor.authorO'Connor, Rory Cen_UK
dc.description.abstractBackground Waves 1 to 3 (March 2020 to May 2020) of the UK COVID-19 Mental Health and Wellbeing study suggested an improvement in some indicators of mental health across the first 6 weeks of the UK lockdown; however, suicidal ideation increased. Aims To report the prevalence of mental health and well-being of adults in the UK from March/April 2020 to February 2021. Method Quota sampling was employed at wave 1 (March/April 2020), and online surveys were conducted at seven time points. Primary analyses cover waves 4 (May/June 2020), 5 (July/August 2020), 6 (October 2020) and 7 (February 2021), including a period of increased restrictions in the UK. Mental health indicators were suicidal ideation, self-harm, suicide attempt, depression, anxiety, defeat, entrapment, loneliness and well-being. Results A total of 2691 (87.5% of wave 1) individuals participated in at least one survey between waves 4 and 7. Depressive symptoms and loneliness increased from October 2020 to February 2021. Defeat and entrapment increased from July/August 2020 to October 2020, and remained elevated in February 2021. Well-being decreased from July/August 2020 to October 2020. Anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation did not change. Young adults, women, those who were socially disadvantaged and those with a pre-existing mental health condition reported worse mental health. Conclusions The mental health and well-being of the UK population deteriorated from July/August 2020 to October 2020 and February 2021, which coincided with the second wave of COVID-19. Suicidal thoughts did not decrease significantly, suggesting a need for continued vigilance as we recover from the pandemic.en_UK
dc.publisherCambridge University Press (CUP)en_UK
dc.relationWetherall K, Cleare S, McClelland H, Melson AJ, Niedzwiedz CL, O'Carroll RE, O'Connor DB, Platt S, Scowcroft E, Watson B, Zortea T, Ferguson E, Robb KA & O'Connor RC (2022) Mental health and well-being during the second wave of COVID-19: longitudinal analyses of the UK COVID-19 Mental Health and Wellbeing study (UK COVID-MH). BJPsych Open, 8 (4), Art. No.: e103.
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Royal College of Psychiatrists This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en_UK
dc.subjectmental healthen_UK
dc.subjectgeneral populationen_UK
dc.subjectsuicidal ideationen_UK
dc.titleMental health and well-being during the second wave of COVID-19: longitudinal analyses of the UK COVID-19 Mental Health and Wellbeing study (UK COVID-MH)en_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleBJPsych Openen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.funderUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Leedsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Edinburghen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationScottish Association for Mental Health (SAMH)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Oxforden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Nottinghamen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorWetherall, Karen|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorCleare, Seonaid|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMcClelland, Heather|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMelson, Ambrose J|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorNiedzwiedz, Claire L|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorO'Carroll, Ronan E|0000-0002-5130-291Xen_UK
local.rioxx.authorO'Connor, Daryl B|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorPlatt, Steve|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorScowcroft, Elizabeth|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorWatson, Billy|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorZortea, Tiago|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFerguson, Eamonn|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorRobb, Kathryn A|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorO'Connor, Rory C|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectProject ID unknown|University of Glasgow|
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