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Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Annual water residence time effects on thermal structure: A potential lake restoration measure?
Author(s): Olsson, Freya
Mackay, Eleanor B
Moore, Tadhg
Barker, Phil
Davies, Sian
Hall, Ruth
Spears, Bryan
Wilkinson, Jayne
Jones, Ian D
Keywords: Lake managements
Heat fluxes
Hypolimnetic anoxia
General Ocean turbulence model
Issue Date: 15-Jul-2022
Date Deposited: 29-Apr-2022
Citation: Olsson F, Mackay EB, Moore T, Barker P, Davies S, Hall R, Spears B, Wilkinson J & Jones ID (2022) Annual water residence time effects on thermal structure: A potential lake restoration measure?. Journal of Environmental Management, 314, Art. No.: 115082.
Abstract: Innovative methods to combat internal loading issues in eutrophic lakes are urgently needed to speed recovery and restore systems within legislative deadlines. In stratifying lakes, internal phosphorus loading is particularly problematic during the summer stratified period when anoxia persists in the hypolimnion, promoting phosphorus release from the sediment. A novel method to inhibit stratification by reducing residence times is proposed as a way of controlling the length of the hypolimnetic anoxic period, thus reducing the loading of nutrients from the sediments into the water column. However, residence time effects on stratification length in natural lakes are not well understood. We used a systematic modelling approach to investigate the viability of changes to annual water residence time in affecting lake stratification and thermal dynamics in Elterwater, a small stratifying eutrophic lake in the northwest of England. We found that reducing annual water residence times shortened and weakened summer stratification. Based on finer-scale dynamics of lake heat fluxes and water column stability we propose seasonal or sub-seasonal management of water residence time is needed for the method to be most effective at reducing stratification as a means of controlling internal nutrient loading.
DOI Link: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115082
Rights: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY license (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. You are not required to obtain permission to reuse this article.
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