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Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Human-wildlife conflicts with crocodilians, cetaceans and otters in the tropics and subtropics
Author(s): Cook, Patrick
Hawes, Joseph E
Campos-Silva, Joao Vitor
Peres, Carlos A
Keywords: Human-wildlife conflict, Fisheries, Animal attack, Carnivore
Aquatic mammal
Issue Date: 2022
Date Deposited: 20-Jan-2022
Citation: Cook P, Hawes JE, Campos-Silva JV & Peres CA (2022) Human-wildlife conflicts with crocodilians, cetaceans and otters in the tropics and subtropics. PeerJ, 10, Art. No.: e12688.
Abstract: Conservation of freshwater biodiversity and management of human-wildlife conflicts are major conservation challenges globally. Human-wildlife conflict occurs due to attacks on people, depredation of fisheries, damage to fishing equipment and entanglement in nets. Here we review the current literature on conflicts with tropical and subtropical crocodilians, cetaceans and otters in freshwater and brackish habitats. We also present a new multispecies case study of conflicts with four freshwater predators in the Western Amazon: black caiman (Melanosuchus niger), giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), boto (Inia geoffrensis) and tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis). Documented conflicts occur with 34 crocodilian, cetacean and otter species. Of the species reviewed in this study, 37.5% had conflicts frequently documented in the literature, with the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) the most studied species. We found conflict severity had a positive relationship with species body mass, and a negative relationship with IUCN Red List status. In the Amazonian case study, we found that the black caiman was ranked as the greatest ‘problem’ followed by the boto, giant otter and tucuxi. There was a significant difference between the responses of local fishers when each of the four species were found entangled in nets. We make recommendations for future research, based on the findings of the review and Amazon case study, including the need to standardise data collection.
DOI Link: 10.7717/peerj.12688
Rights: © 2022 Cook et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.
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