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dc.contributor.authorGunner, Richard Men_UK
dc.contributor.authorHolton, Mark Den_UK
dc.contributor.authorScantlebury, David Men_UK
dc.contributor.authorHopkins, Philen_UK
dc.contributor.authorShepard, Emily L Cen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFell, Adam Jen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGarde, Baptisteen_UK
dc.contributor.authorQuintana, Flavioen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGómez-Laich, Agustinaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorYoda, Kenen_UK
dc.contributor.authorYamamoto, Takashien_UK
dc.contributor.authorEnglish, Hollyen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFerreira, Samen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGovender, Dannyen_UK
dc.contributor.authorViljoen, Paulien_UK
dc.description.abstractBackground Understanding what animals do in time and space is important for a range of ecological questions, however accurate estimates of how animals use space is challenging. Within the use of animal-attached tags, radio telemetry (including the Global Positioning System, ‘GPS’) is typically used to verify an animal’s location periodically. Straight lines are typically drawn between these ‘Verified Positions’ (‘VPs’) so the interpolation of space-use is limited by the temporal and spatial resolution of the system’s measurement. As such, parameters such as route-taken and distance travelled can be poorly represented when using VP systems alone. Dead-reckoning has been suggested as a technique to improve the accuracy and resolution of reconstructed movement paths, whilst maximising battery life of VP systems. This typically involves deriving travel vectors from motion sensor systems and periodically correcting path dimensions for drift with simultaneously deployed VP systems. How often paths should be corrected for drift, however, has remained unclear. Methods and results Here, we review the utility of dead-reckoning across four contrasting model species using different forms of locomotion (the African lion Panthera leo, the red-tailed tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda, the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus, and the imperial cormorant Leucocarbo atriceps). Simulations were performed to examine the extent of dead-reckoning error, relative to VPs, as a function of Verified Position correction (VP correction) rate and the effect of this on estimates of distance moved. Dead-reckoning error was greatest for animals travelling within air and water. We demonstrate how sources of measurement error can arise within VP-corrected dead-reckoned tracks and propose advancements to this procedure to maximise dead-reckoning accuracy. Conclusions We review the utility of VP-corrected dead-reckoning according to movement type and consider a range of ecological questions that would benefit from dead-reckoning, primarily concerning animal–barrier interactions and foraging strategies.en_UK
dc.relationGunner RM, Holton MD, Scantlebury DM, Hopkins P, Shepard ELC, Fell AJ, Garde B, Quintana F, Gómez-Laich A, Yoda K, Yamamoto T, English H, Ferreira S, Govender D & Viljoen P (2021) How often should dead-reckoned animal movement paths be corrected for drift?. Animal Biotelemetry, 9, Art. No.: 43.
dc.rightsThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.en_UK
dc.subjectGlobal Positioning System (GPS)en_UK
dc.subjectAnimal movementen_UK
dc.subjectAnimal trackingen_UK
dc.subjectTilt-compensated compassen_UK
dc.subjectGPS correctionen_UK
dc.titleHow often should dead-reckoned animal movement paths be corrected for drift?en_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleAnimal Biotelemetryen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.description.notesAdditional co-authors: Angela Bruns, O. Louis van Schalkwyk, Nik C. Cole, Vikash Tatayah, Luca Börger, James Redcliffe, Stephen H. Bell, Nikki J. Marks, Nigel C. Bennett, Mariano H. Tonini, Hannah J. Williams, Carlos M. Duarte, Martin C. van Rooyen, Mads F. Bertelsen, Craig J. Tambling & Rory P. Wilsonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSwansea Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSwansea Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationQueen's University Belfasten_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSwansea Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSwansea Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSwansea Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNational Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Argentinaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNational Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Argentinaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNagoya Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationMeiji Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity College Dublin (UCD)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSouth African National Parksen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSouth African National Parksen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSouth African National Parksen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorGunner, Richard M|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHolton, Mark D|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorScantlebury, David M|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHopkins, Phil|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorShepard, Emily L C|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFell, Adam J|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGarde, Baptiste|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorQuintana, Flavio|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGómez-Laich, Agustina|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorYoda, Ken|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorYamamoto, Takashi|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorEnglish, Holly|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFerreira, Sam|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGovender, Danny|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorViljoen, Pauli|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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