Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Appears in Collections:Management, Work and Organisation Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Social network analysis of Twitter data from Pakistan during COVID-19
Author(s): Batool, Syeda Hina
Ahmed, Wasim
Mahmood, Khalid
Sharif, Ashraf
Contact Email:
Keywords: Pakistan
Social media
Health communication
Issue Date: 30-Nov-2021
Date Deposited: 21-Nov-2021
Citation: Batool SH, Ahmed W, Mahmood K & Sharif A (2021) Social network analysis of Twitter data from Pakistan during COVID-19. Information Discovery and Delivery.
Abstract: Purpose – The use of social media has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social media platforms provide opportunities to share news, ideas and personal stories. Twitter is used by citizens in Pakistan to respond and comment on emerging news stories and events. However, it is not known whether Twitter played a positive or negative role in spreading updates and preventive messages during the COVID-19 Pandemic. The purpose of this study is to analyse content from Twitter during the pandemic. Design/methodology/approach – NodeXL was used to retrieve data using the keyword وائرس کورونا (written in Urdu and which translates to Coronavirus). The first data set (Case Study 1) was based on 10,284 Twitter users from the end of March. The second data set (Case Study 2) was based on 10,644 Twitter users from the start of April. The theoretical lens of effective message framing was used to classify the most retweeted content on Twitter. Findings – Twitter was used for personal and professional projections and included certain tweets included political motives even during the unfolding health crisis. There appeared to be very few successful attempts to use Twitter as a tool for health awareness and risk communication. The empirical findings indicate that the most retweeted messages were gain-framed and can be classified as personal, informative and political in nature. Originality/value – The present study provides insights likely to be of interest to researchers, health organizations, citizens, government and politicians that are interested in making more effective use of social media for the purposes of health promotion. The authors also provides novel insights into the key topics of discussions, websites and hashtags used by Pakistani Twitter users during the COVID-19.
DOI Link: 10.1108/IDD-03-2021-0022
Rights: This item has been embargoed for a period. During the embargo please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study. Publisher policy allows this work to be made available in this repository. Published in Information Discovery and Delivery, by Emerald. The original publication is available at: This author accepted manuscript is deposited under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC) licence. This means that anyone may distribute, adapt, and build upon the work for non-commercial purposes, subject to full attribution. If you wish to use this manuscript for commercial purposes, please contact
Notes: Output Status: Forthcoming/Available Online
Licence URL(s):

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Final Version 1.pdfFulltext - Accepted Version993.57 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

This item is protected by original copyright

A file in this item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons

Items in the Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

The metadata of the records in the Repository are available under the CC0 public domain dedication: No Rights Reserved

If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.