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dc.contributor.authorBeirne, Christopheren_UK
dc.contributor.authorHouslay, Thomas Men_UK
dc.contributor.authorMorkel, Peteren_UK
dc.contributor.authorClark, Connie Jen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFay, Mikeen_UK
dc.contributor.authorOkouyi, Josephen_UK
dc.contributor.authorWhite, Lee J Ten_UK
dc.contributor.authorPoulsen, John Ren_UK
dc.description.abstractThe critically endangered African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) plays a vital role in maintaining the structure and composition of Afrotropical forests, but basic information is lacking regarding the drivers of elephant movement and behavior at landscape scales. We use GPS location data from 96 individuals throughout Gabon to determine how five movement behaviors vary at different scales, how they are influenced by anthropogenic and environmental covariates, and to assess evidence for behavioral syndromes—elephants which share suites of similar movement traits. Elephants show some evidence of behavioral syndromes along an ‘idler’ to ‘explorer’ axis—individuals that move more have larger home ranges and engage in more ‘exploratory’ movements. However, within these groups, forest elephants express remarkable inter-individual variation in movement behaviours. This variation highlights that no two elephants are the same and creates challenges for practitioners aiming to design conservation initiatives.en_UK
dc.publisherNature Publishing Groupen_UK
dc.relationBeirne C, Houslay TM, Morkel P, Clark CJ, Fay M, Okouyi J, White LJT & Poulsen JR (2021) African forest elephant movements depend on time scale and individual behavior. Scientific Reports, 11, Art. No.: 12634.
dc.rightsThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
dc.subjectAnimal behaviouren_UK
dc.subjectAnimal migrationen_UK
dc.subjectBehavioural ecologyen_UK
dc.subjectConservation biologyen_UK
dc.subjectTropical ecologyen_UK
dc.titleAfrican forest elephant movements depend on time scale and individual behavioren_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleScientific Reportsen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationDuke Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Cambridgeen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationDuke Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationAgence Nationale des Parcs Nationaux (ANPN)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationAgence Nationale des Parcs Nationaux (ANPN)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationAgence Nationale des Parcs Nationauxen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationDuke Universityen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorBeirne, Christopher|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHouslay, Thomas M|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMorkel, Peter|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorClark, Connie J|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFay, Mike|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorOkouyi, Joseph|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorWhite, Lee J T|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorPoulsen, John R|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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