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dc.contributor.authorWall, Jakeen_UK
dc.contributor.authorWittemyer, Georgeen_UK
dc.contributor.authorKlinkenberg, Brianen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLeMay, Valerieen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBlake, Stephenen_UK
dc.contributor.authorStrindberg, Samanthaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorHenley, Michelleen_UK
dc.contributor.authorVollrath, Fritzen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMaisels, Fionaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFerwerda, Jelleen_UK
dc.contributor.authorDouglas-Hamilton, Iainen_UK
dc.description.abstractOver the last two millennia, and at an accelerating pace, the African elephant (Loxodonta spp. Lin.) has been threatened by human activities across its range. We investigate the correlates of elephant home range sizes across diverse biomes. Annual and 16-day elliptical time density home ranges were calculated by using GPS tracking data collected from 229 African savannah and forest elephants (L. africana and L. cyclotis, respectively) between 1998 and 2013 at 19 sites representing bushveld, savannah, Sahel, and forest biomes. Our analysis considered the relationship between home range area and sex, species, vegetation productivity, tree cover, surface temperature, rainfall, water, slope, aggregate human influence, and protected area use. Irrespective of these environmental conditions, long-term annual ranges were overwhelmingly affected by human influence and protected area use. Only over shorter, 16-day periods did environmental factors, particularly water availability and vegetation productivity, become important in explaining space use. Our work highlights the degree to which the human footprint and existing protected areas now constrain the distribution of the world’s largest terrestrial mammal. A habitat suitability model, created by evaluating every square kilometer of Africa, predicts that 18,169,219 km2 would be suitable as elephant habitat—62% of the continent. The current elephant distribution covers just 17% of this potential range of which 57.4% falls outside protected areas. To stem the continued extirpation and to secure the elephants’ future, effective and expanded protected areas and improved capacity for coexistence across unprotected range are essential.en_UK
dc.publisherElsevier BVen_UK
dc.relationWall J, Wittemyer G, Klinkenberg B, LeMay V, Blake S, Strindberg S, Henley M, Vollrath F, Maisels F, Ferwerda J & Douglas-Hamilton I (2021) Human footprint and protected areas shape elephant range across Africa. Current Biology.
dc.rights© 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
dc.subjectGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biologyen_UK
dc.subjectGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciencesen_UK
dc.titleHuman footprint and protected areas shape elephant range across Africaen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleCurrent Biologyen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Commission (Horizon 2020)en_UK
dc.description.notesOutput Status: Forthcoming/Available Onlineen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationColorado State Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationColorado State Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of British Columbiaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of British Columbiaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationWildlife Conservation Societyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationWildlife Conservation Societyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of South Africaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSave The Elephantsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Twenteen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Oxforden_UK
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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