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Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Shifts in Female Facial Attractiveness during Pregnancy
Author(s): Danel, Dariusz P
Kalinowski, Kasper
Nowak-Szczepanska, Natalia
Ziomkiewicz-Wichary, Anna
Apanasewicz, Anna
Borysławski, Krzysztof
Kozieł, Sławomir
Kornafel, Danuta
Fedurek, Pawel
Keywords: pregnancy
facial attractiveness
cues of fertility
Issue Date: Jul-2020
Citation: Danel DP, Kalinowski K, Nowak-Szczepanska N, Ziomkiewicz-Wichary A, Apanasewicz A, Borysławski K, Kozieł S, Kornafel D & Fedurek P (2020) Shifts in Female Facial Attractiveness during Pregnancy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (14), Art. No.: 5176.
Abstract: It has been proposed that women’s physical attractiveness is a cue to temporal changes in fertility. If this is the case, we should observe shifts in attractiveness during pregnancy—a unique physiological state of temporal infertility. The aim of this study was to examine how women’s facial attractiveness changes during the subsequent trimesters of pregnancy and how it compares to that of nonpregnant women. Sixty-six pictures of pregnant women (22 pictures per trimester) and 22 of nonpregnant women (a control group) were used to generate four composite portraits, which were subsequently assessed for facial attractiveness by 117 heterosexual men. The results show considerable differences between facial attractiveness ratings depending on the status and progress of pregnancy. Nonpregnant women were perceived as the most attractive, and the attractiveness scores of pregnant women decreased throughout the course of pregnancy. Our findings show that facial attractiveness can be influenced by pregnancy and that gestation, even at its early stages, affects facial attractiveness. Considerable changes in women’s physiology that occur during pregnancy may be responsible for the observed effects.
DOI Link: 10.3390/ijerph17145176
Rights: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
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