Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Full metadata record
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLind, Sophie Een_UK
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, David Men_UK
dc.contributor.authorNicholson, Tobyen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGrainger, Catherineen_UK
dc.contributor.authorCarruthers, Peteren_UK
dc.description.abstractThree experiments investigated the extent to which a) individuals with autism show a self-reference effect (i.e., better memory for self-relevant information), and b) the size of the self-reference effect is associated with autism traits. Participants studied trait adjectives in relation to their own name (self-referent) or a celebrity’s name (other-referent) under explicit and incidental/implicit encoding conditions. Explicit encoding involved judging whether the adjectives applied to self or other (denoted by proper names). Implicit encoding involved judging whether the adjectives were presented to the right or left of one’s own or a celebrity’s name. Recognition memory for the adjectives was tested using a yes/no procedure. Experiment 1 (individual differences; N = 257 neurotypical adults) employed the Autism-spectrum Quotient as a measure of autistic traits. Experiments 2 (N = 60) and 3 (N = 52) involved case-control designs with closely-matched groups of autistic and neurotypical adults and children/adolescents, respectively. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-spectrum Quotient and Social Responsiveness Scale, respectively. In all experiments, a significant self-reference effect was observed in both explicit and implicit encoding conditions. Most importantly, however, there was (a) no significant relation between size of the self-reference effect and number of autistic traits (Experiments 1, 2 and 3), and (b) no significant difference in the size of the self-reference effect between autistic and neurotypical participants (Experiments 2 and 3). In these respects, Bayesian analyses consistently suggested that the data supported the null hypothesis. These results challenge the notion that subjective or objective self-awareness are impaired in autism. It is generally easier to remember information that is relevant to oneself than to remember other kinds of information. This is known as the “self-reference effect”. Previously, it has been claimed that people with autism show a reduced self-reference effect (implying diminished self-awareness) but this study provides robust evidence that people with autism are, in fact, just as susceptible to this effect as neurotypical people.en_UK
dc.publisherAmerican Psychological Associationen_UK
dc.relationLind SE, Williams DM, Nicholson T, Grainger C & Carruthers P (2019) The self-reference effect on memory is not diminished in autism: Three studies of incidental and explicit self-referential recognition memory in autistic and neurotypical adults and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.
dc.rightsThis article has been published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s). Author(s) grant(s) the American Psychological Association the exclusive right to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.en_UK
dc.subjectautism spectrum disorderen_UK
dc.subjectrecognition memoryen_UK
dc.subjectself-reference effecten_UK
dc.titleThe self-reference effect on memory is not diminished in autism: Three studies of incidental and explicit self-referential recognition memory in autistic and neurotypical adults and adolescentsen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleJournal of Abnormal Psychologyen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.funderEconomic and Social Research Councilen_UK
dc.description.notesOutput Status: Forthcoming/Available Onlineen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationCity University Londonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Kenten_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Kenten_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Marylanden_UK
dc.description.refREF Eligible with Permitted Exceptionen_UK
Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
2019-63663-001.pdfFulltext - Published Version285.51 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

This item is protected by original copyright

A file in this item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons

Items in the Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.