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dc.contributor.advisorOliver, David-
dc.contributor.advisorQuilliam, Richard-
dc.contributor.advisorReaney, Sim-
dc.contributor.authorPorter, Kenneth-
dc.identifier.citationPorter, K.D., Reaney, S.M., Quilliam, R.S., Burgess, C. and Oliver, D.M., 2017. Predicting diffuse microbial pollution risk across catchments: The performance of SCIMAP and recommendations for future development. Science of the Total Environment, 609, pp.456-465.en_GB
dc.identifier.citationPorter, K.D., Quilliam, R.S., Reaney, S.M. and Oliver, D.M., 2019. High resolution characterisation of E. coli proliferation profiles in livestock faeces. Waste Management, 87, pp.537-545.en_GB
dc.description.abstractMicrobial contamination of watercourses can threaten ecosystem services related to clean water; for example, recreational bathing, shellfish harvesting and potable water supplies. This is because pathogens associated with faeces from warm blooded animals can cause gastrointestinal illness in exposed human beings. Microbial water quality impacts from point sources associated with wastewater transfer and treatment have been reduced through engineering solutions. However, as these sources of contamination have been reduced diffuse sources have become more important. Diffuse pollution describes water quality impacts originating from accumulations of many small, spatially distributed, inputs. These sources of pollution are difficult to manage because their loading and connectivity to sensitive receptors varies spatially and temporally. The Sensitive Catchment Integrated Mapping Analysis Platform (SCIMAP) is a risk-based approach that has been developed to map sources of diffuse sediment and conservative nutrient pollution allowing for efficient targeting of mitigation efforts which are often expensive and occupy valuable productive land. SCIMAP has been well received within the regulatory community in the United Kingdom and its development to account for diffuse microbial pollution is therefore timely. The primary goal for this thesis was to explore SCIMAP’s application to microbial pollution, highlight areas for improvement and work towards a new SCIMAP framework that accounts for microbial diffuse pollution. An initial application of SCIMAP, as it exists, revealed that the time-integrated approach currently employed may be inappropriate for sources of microbial pollution that are likely to vary temporally due to microbial die off. Furthermore, an enhanced description of land use incorporating spatial distributions of the numbers and types of livestock may improve SCIMAP’s 4 performance. Spatial variations in microbial source loading arising from differences in the persistence of E. coli (an indicator of faecal pollution) in the faeces of different livestock was investigated within a controlled environment facility. This controlled experiment provided a novel non-linear description of E. coli growth in ovine and 2 types of bovine faeces for a period of 30 days post defecation. Potential variation in rainfall induced E. coli release from faecal matrices associated, with beef cattle, dairy cattle and sheep were explored using rainfall simulation. An asymptotic model of E. coli release with increasing rainfall depth was developed and no difference was discovered in the profile of release from sheep, beef cattle and dairy cattle. Finally lessons from these investigations were combined to propose a framework for an evolution of SCIMAP allowing for a better description of microbial source and transfer risk. This new version of SCIMAP will provide a decision support tool allowing for more efficient targeting of mitigation efforts reducing microbial impacts to important ecosystem services relying on clean water.en_GB
dc.publisherUniversity of Stirlingen_GB
dc.subjectAgricultural waste managementen_GB
dc.subjectDiffuse pollutionen_GB
dc.subjectFaecal indicator organismen_GB
dc.subjectMicrobial die-offen_GB
dc.subjectSurvival curvesen_GB
dc.subjectDecision supporten_GB
dc.subjectE. colien_GB
dc.subjectHydrological connectivityen_GB
dc.subjectNon-point source pollutionen_GB
dc.subjectmicrobial transporten_GB
dc.subjectuncertainty analysisen_GB
dc.subject.lcshSewage disposalen_GB
dc.subject.lcshRunoff Environmental aspectsen_GB
dc.subject.lcshWater Pollution Health aspectsen_GB
dc.subject.lcshEnvironmental managementen_GB
dc.titleRisk-based modelling of faecal indicator organism export from agricultural landscapesen_GB
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen_GB
dc.type.qualificationnameDoctor of Philosophyen_GB
dc.contributor.funderThis research was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council as part of the IAPETUS Doctoral Training Programme (NE/L002590/1). We are grateful to the Environment Agency for providing spatial datasets licensed under the Open Government Licence v2.0.en_GB
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