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dc.contributor.authorMarshall, Daviden_UK
dc.contributor.authorRezac, Ladislaven_UK
dc.contributor.authorHartogh, Paulen_UK
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Yen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAttree, Nicholasen_UK
dc.description.abstractAims. We investigate the influence of three basic factors on water production rate as a function of heliocentric distance: nucleus shape, the spin axis orientation, and the distribution of activity on a comet's surface. Methods. We used a basic water sublimation model driven by solar insolation to derive total production rates for different nuclei shapes and spin axis orientations using the orbital parameters of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We used known shape models derived from prior missions to the Jupiter Family and short period comets. The slopes of production rates versus heliocentric distance were calculated for the different model setups. Results. The standard (homogeneous) outgassing model confirms the well-known result regarding the heliocentric dependence of water production rate that remains invariant for different nuclei shapes as long as the rotation axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane. When the rotation axis is not perpendicular, the nucleus shape becomes a critically important factor in determining the water production curves as the illuminated cross section of the nucleus changes with heliocentric distance. Shape and obliquity can produce changes in the illuminated cross section of up to 50% over an orbit. In addition, different spin axis orientations for a given shape can dramatically alter the pre-and post-perihelion production curves, as do assumptions about the activity distribution on the surface. If, however, the illuminated cross section of the nucleus is invariant, then the dependence on the above parameters is weak, as demonstrated here with the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko shape. The comets Hartley 2 and Wild 2 are shown to yield significantly different production curve shapes for the same orbit and orientation as 67P/CG, varying by as much as a factor of three as a result of only changing the nucleus shape. Finally, we show that varying just three basic parameters, shape, spin axis orientation, and active spots distribution on the surface can lead to arbitrary deviations from the expected inverse square law dependence of water production rates near 1 au. Conclusions. With the results obtained, we cannot avoid the conclusion that, without prior knowledge of basic parameters (shape, spin axis orientation, activity locations), it is difficult to reveal the nature of cometary outgassing from the heliocentric water production rates. Similarly, the inter-comparison of water production curves of two such comets may not be meaningful.en_UK
dc.publisherEDP Sciencesen_UK
dc.relationMarshall D, Rezac L, Hartogh P, Zhao Y & Attree N (2019) Interpretation of heliocentric water production rates of comets. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 623, Art. No.: A120.
dc.rights© D. Marshall et al. 2019 Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en_UK
dc.subjectcomets: generalen_UK
dc.titleInterpretation of heliocentric water production rates of cometsen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleAstronomy and Astrophysicsen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Commissionen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationMax Planck Institute for Solar System Researchen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationMax Planck Institute for Solar System Researchen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationMax Planck Institute for Solar System Researchen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationChinese Academy of Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.description.refREF Compliant by Deposit in Stirling's Repositoryen_UK
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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