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dc.contributor.authorEssl, Franzen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBiró, Krisztinaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBrandes, Dietmaren_UK
dc.contributor.authorBroennimann, Olivieren_UK
dc.contributor.authorBullock, James Men_UK
dc.contributor.authorChapman, Daniel Sen_UK
dc.contributor.authorChauvel, Brunoen_UK
dc.contributor.authorDullinger, Stefanen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFumanal, Borisen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGuisan, Antoineen_UK
dc.contributor.authorKarrer, Gerharden_UK
dc.contributor.authorKazinczi, Gabriellaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorKueffer, Christophen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLaitung, Berylen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLavoie, Claudeen_UK
dc.description.abstract1. This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common ragweed) that are relevant to understanding its ecology. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, and history, conservation, impacts and management. 2. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a monoecious, wind-pollinated, annual herb native to North America whose height varies from 10 cm to 2.5 m, according to environmental conditions. It has erect, branched stems and pinnately lobed leaves. Spike-like racemes of male capitula composed of staminate (male) florets terminate the stems, while cyme-like clusters of pistillate (female) florets are arranged in groups in the axils of main and lateral stem leaves. 3. Seeds require prolonged chilling to break dormancy. Following seedling emergence in spring, the rate of vegetative growth depends on temperature, but development occurs over a wide thermal range. In temperate European climates, male and female flowers are produced from summer to early autumn (July to October). 4. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is sensitive to freezing. Late spring frosts kill seedlings and the first autumn frosts terminate the growing season. It has a preference for dry soils of intermediate to rich nutrient level. 5. Ambrosia artemisiifolia was introduced into Europe with seed imports from North America in the 19th century. Since World War II, it has become widespread in temperate regions of Europe and is now abundant in open, disturbed habitats as a ruderal and agricultural weed. 6. Recently, the North American ragweed leaf beetle (Ophraella communa) has been detected in southern Switzerland and northern Italy. This species appears to have the capacity to substantially reduce growth and seed production of A. artemisiifolia. 7. In heavily infested regions of Europe, A. artemisiifolia causes substantial crop-yield losses and its copious, highly allergenic pollen creates considerable public health problems. There is a consensus among models that climate change will allow its northward and uphill spread in Europe.en_UK
dc.publisherJohn Wiley & Sons, Ltd (10.1111)en_UK
dc.relationEssl F, Biró K, Brandes D, Broennimann O, Bullock JM, Chapman DS, Chauvel B, Dullinger S, Fumanal B, Guisan A, Karrer G, Kazinczi G, Kueffer C, Laitung B, Lavoie C, Leitner M, Mang T, Moser D, Müller-Schärer H, Petitpierre B, Richter R, Schaffner U, Smith M, Starfinger U, Vautard R, Vogl G, von der Lippe M & Follak S (2015) Biological Flora of the British Isles: Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Journal of Ecology, 103 (4), pp. 1069-1098.
dc.rightsThis is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Essl, F., Biró, K., Brandes, D., Broennimann, O., Bullock, J. M., Chapman, D. S., Chauvel, B., Dullinger, S., Fumanal, B., Guisan, A., Karrer, G., Kazinczi, G., Kueffer, C., Laitung, B., Lavoie, C., Leitner, M., Mang, T., Moser, D., Müller‐Schärer, H., Petitpierre, B., Richter, R., Schaffner, U., Smith, M., Starfinger, U., Vautard, R., Vogl, G., Lippe, M. and Follak, S. (2015), Biological Flora of the British Isles: Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Journal of Ecology, 103: 1069-1098, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.en_UK
dc.subjectclimate changeen_UK
dc.subjectgeographical and altitudinal distributionen_UK
dc.subjectparasites and diseasesen_UK
dc.subjectreproductive biologyen_UK
dc.titleBiological Flora of the British Isles: Ambrosia artemisiifoliaen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleJournal of Ecologyen_UK
dc.type.statusAM - Accepted Manuscripten_UK
dc.contributor.funderCentre for Ecology & Hydrologyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Viennaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Pannonia Georgikon Facultyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationTechnische Universitat zu Braunschweigen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Lausanneen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationCentre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationCentre for Ecology & Hydrologyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationINRA UMR SAS, Franceen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Viennaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversité Clermont Auvergneen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Lausanneen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Natural Resources and Life Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationKaposvar Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationETH Zurichen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationINRA UMR SAS, Franceen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversite Laval, Canadaen_UK
dc.description.refREF Compliant by Deposit in Stirling's Repositoryen_UK
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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