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Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Women's preferences for men's facial masculinity are strongest under favorable ecological conditions
Author(s): Marcinkowska, Urszula M
Rantala, Markus J
Lee, Anthony J
Kozlov, Mikhail V
Aavik, Toivo
Cai, Huajian
Contreras-Garduño, Jorge
David, Oana A
Kaminski, Gwenaël
Li, Norman P
Onyishi, Ike E
Prasai, Keshav
Pazhoohi, Farid
Prokop, Pavol
Rosales Cardozo, Sandra L
Keywords: Facial attractiveness
facial masculinity
sexual selection
mate preferences
Issue Date: Dec-2019
Date Deposited: 30-Jan-2019
Citation: Marcinkowska UM, Rantala MJ, Lee AJ, Kozlov MV, Aavik T, Cai H, Contreras-Garduño J, David OA, Kaminski G, Li NP, Onyishi IE, Prasai K, Pazhoohi F, Prokop P & Rosales Cardozo SL (2019) Women's preferences for men's facial masculinity are strongest under favorable ecological conditions. Scientific Reports, 9, Art. No.: 3387.
Abstract: The strength of sexual selection on secondary sexual traits varies depending on prevailing economic and ecological conditions. In humans, cross-cultural evidence suggesting women's preferences for men’s testosterone dependent masculine facial traits are stronger under conditions where health is compromised, male mortality rates are higher and economic development is higher. Here we use a sample of 4483 exclusively heterosexual women from 34 countries and employ mixed effects modelling to test how social, ecological and economic variables predict women’s facial masculinity preferences. We report women’s preferences for more masculine looking men are stronger in countries with higher sociosexuality and where national health indices and human development indices are higher, while no associations were found between preferences and indices of intra-sexual competition. Our results show that women’s preferences for masculine faces are stronger under conditions where offspring survival is higher and economic conditions more favorable.
DOI Link: 10.1038/s41598-019-39350-8
Rights: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
Notes: Additional co-authors: Nicolle Sydney, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Indrikis Krams & Barnaby J W Dixson
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