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Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: The insect, Galleria mellonella, is a compatible model for evaluating the toxicology of okadaic acid
Author(s): Coates, Christopher J
Lim, Jenson
Harman, Katie
Rowley, Andrew F
Griffiths, David J
Emery, Helena
Layton, Will
Keywords: Haemocytes
Innate immunity
Oxidative stress
Shellfish-poisoning syndrome
Issue Date: Jun-2019
Citation: Coates CJ, Lim J, Harman K, Rowley AF, Griffiths DJ, Emery H & Layton W (2019) The insect, Galleria mellonella, is a compatible model for evaluating the toxicology of okadaic acid. Cell Biology and Toxicology, 35 (3), pp. 219-232.
Abstract: The polyether toxin, okadaic acid, causes diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in humans. Despite extensive research into its cellular targets using rodent models, we know little about its putative effect(s) on innate immunity. We inoculated larvae of the greater waxmoth, Galleria mellonella, with physiologically relevant doses of okadaic acid by direct injection into the haemocoel (body cavity) and/or gavage (force-feeding). We monitored larval survival and employed a range of cellular and biochemical assays to assess the potential harmful effects of okadaic acid. Okadaic acid at concentrations >75 ng/larva (>242 μg/kg) led to significant reductions in larval survival (>65%) and circulating haemocyte (blood cell) numbers (>50%) within 24 h post-inoculation. In the haemolymph, okadaic acid reduced haemocyte viability and increased phenoloxidase activities. In the midgut, okadaic acid induced oxidative damage as determined by increases in superoxide dismutase activity and levels of malondialdehyde (i.e., lipid peroxidation). Our observations of insect larvae correspond broadly to data published using rodent models of shellfish poisoning toxidrome, including complementary LD50 values; 206–242 μg/kg in mice, ~239 μg/kg in G. mellonella. These data support the use of this insect as a surrogate model for the investigation of marine toxins, which offers distinct ethical and financial incentives.
DOI Link: 10.1007/s10565-018-09448-2
Rights: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made
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