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dc.contributor.authorHilt, Sabineen_UK
dc.contributor.authorNunez, Marta M Aliranguesen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBakker, Elisabeth Sen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBlindow, Irmgarden_UK
dc.contributor.authorDavidson, Thomas Aen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGillefalk, Mikaelen_UK
dc.contributor.authorHansson, Lars-Andersen_UK
dc.contributor.authorJanse, Jan Hen_UK
dc.contributor.authorJanssen, Annette B Gen_UK
dc.contributor.authorJeppesen, Eriken_UK
dc.contributor.authorKabus, Timmen_UK
dc.contributor.authorKelly, Andreaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorKohler, Janen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLauridsen, Torben Len_UK
dc.contributor.authorWillby, Nigelen_UK
dc.description.abstractSubmerged macrophytes play a key role in north temperate shallow lakes by stabilising clear-water conditions. Eutrophication has resulted in macrophyte loss and shifts to turbid conditions in many lakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to shallow lake restoration in many countries, but long-term success depends on a stable recovery of submerged macrophytes. However, recovery patterns vary widely and remain to be fully understood. We hypothesize that reduced external nutrient loading leads to an intermediate recovery state with clear spring and turbid summer conditions similar to the pattern described for eutrophication. In contrast, lake internal restoration measures can result in transient clear-water conditions both in spring and summer and reversals to turbid conditions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these contrasting restoration measures result in different macrophyte species composition, with added implications for seasonal dynamics due to differences in plant traits. To test these hypotheses, we analysed data on water quality and submerged macrophytes from 49 north temperate shallow lakes that were in a turbid state and subjected to restoration measures. To study the dynamics of macrophytes during nutrient load reduction, we adapted the ecosystem model PCLake. Our survey and model simulations revealed the existence of an intermediate recovery state upon reduced external nutrient loading, characterised by spring clear-water phases and turbid summers, whereas internal lake restoration measures often resulted in clear-water conditions in spring and summer with returns to turbid conditions after some years. External and internal lake restoration measures resulted in different macrophyte communities. The intermediate recovery state following reduced nutrient loading is characterised by a few macrophyte species (mainly pondweeds) that can resist wave action allowing survival in shallow areas, germinate early in spring, have energy-rich vegetative propagules facilitating rapid initial growth and that can complete their life cycle by early summer. Later in the growing season these plants are, according to our simulations, outcompeted by periphyton, leading to late-summer phytoplankton blooms. Internal lake restoration measures often coincide with a rapid but transient colonisation by hornworts, waterweeds or charophytes. Stable clear-water conditions and a diverse macrophyte flora only occurred decades after external nutrient load reduction or when measures were combined.en_UK
dc.publisherFrontiers Mediaen_UK
dc.relationHilt S, Nunez MMA, Bakker ES, Blindow I, Davidson TA, Gillefalk M, Hansson L, Janse JH, Janssen ABG, Jeppesen E, Kabus T, Kelly A, Kohler J, Lauridsen TL & Willby N (2018) Response of Submerged Macrophyte Communities to External and Internal Restoration Measures in North Temperate Shallow Lakes. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, Art. No.: 194.
dc.rights© 2018 Hilt, Alirangues Nuñez, Bakker, Blindow, Davidson, Gillefalk, Hansson, Janse, Janssen, Jeppesen, Kabus, Kelly, Köhler, Lauridsen, Mooij, Noordhuis, Phillips, Rücker, Schuster, Søndergaard, Teurlincx, van de Weyer, van Donk, Waterstraat, Willby and Sayer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.en_UK
dc.subjectaquatic plantsen_UK
dc.subjectlake restorationen_UK
dc.subjectnutrient load reductionen_UK
dc.subjectplant traitsen_UK
dc.subjectregime shiften_UK
dc.titleResponse of Submerged Macrophyte Communities to External and Internal Restoration Measures in North Temperate Shallow Lakesen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleFrontiers in Plant Scienceen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.description.notesAdditional co-authors: Wolf M. Mooij, Ruurd Noordhuis, Geoff Phillips, Jacqueline Rücker, Hans-Heinrich Schuster, Martin Søndergaard, Sven Teurlincx, Klaus van de Weyer, Ellen van Donk, Arno Waterstraat and Carl D. Sayeren_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLeibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germanyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLeibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germanyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNetherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationErnst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswalden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationAarhus Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLeibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germanyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLund Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNetherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNetherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationAarhus Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute of Applied Aquatic Ecology, Germanyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBroads Authorityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLeibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germanyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationAarhus Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorHilt, Sabine|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorNunez, Marta M Alirangues|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBakker, Elisabeth S|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBlindow, Irmgard|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorDavidson, Thomas A|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGillefalk, Mikael|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHansson, Lars-Anders|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorJanse, Jan H|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorJanssen, Annette B G|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorJeppesen, Erik|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorKabus, Timm|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorKelly, Andrea|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorKohler, Jan|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorLauridsen, Torben L|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorWillby, Nigel|0000-0002-1020-0933en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
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