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Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design
Author(s): Fukumura, Kumiko
Keywords: Audience design
Referential communication
Language production
Issue Date: Aug-2015
Citation: Fukumura K (2015) Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design, Cognitive Science, 39 (6), pp. 1419-1433.
Abstract: Evidence suggests that speakers can take account of the addressee's needs when referring. However, what representations drive the speaker's audience design has been less clear. This study aims to go beyond previous studies by investigating the interplay between the visual and linguistic context during audience design. Speakers repeated subordinate descriptions (e.g., firefighter) given in the prior linguistic context less and used basic-level descriptions (e.g., man) more when the addressee did not hear the linguistic context than when s/he did. But crucially, this effect happened only when the referent lacked the visual attributes associated with the expressions (e.g., the referent was in plain clothes rather than in a firefighter uniform), so there was no other contextual cue available for the identification of the referent. This suggests that speakers flexibly use different contextual cues to help their addressee map the referring expression onto the intended referent. In addition, speakers used fewer pronouns when the addressee did not hear the linguistic antecedent than when s/he did. This suggests that although speakers may be egocentric during anaphoric reference (Fukumura & Van Gompel, 2012), they can cooperatively avoid pronouns when the linguistic antecedents were not shared with their addressee during initial reference.
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Rights: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Fukumura, K. (2015), Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design. Cognitive Science, 39: 1419–1433, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.

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