|Appears in Collections:||Aquaculture Journal Articles|
|Peer Review Status:||Refereed|
|Title:||Ethanol toxicity differs depending on the time of day|
|Author(s):||Vera, Luisa M|
Paredes, Juan F
Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco J
|Citation:||Vera LM, Bello C, Paredes JF, Carmona-Antoñanzas G & Sánchez-Vázquez FJ (2018) Ethanol toxicity differs depending on the time of day. PLoS ONE, 13 (1), Art. No.: e0190406. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190406.|
|Abstract:||Ethanol is one of the most commonly abused drugs and consequently its toxic and psychoactive effect has been widely investigated, although little is known about the time-dependent effects of this drug. In the present research zebrafish was used to assess daily rhythms in ethanol toxicity and behavioural effects, as well as the temporal pattern of expression of key genes involved in ethanol detoxification in the liver (adh8a, adh5, aldh2.1 and aldh2.2). Our results showed marked differences in the mortality rate of zebrafish larvae depending on the time of day of the exposure to 5% ethanol for 1h (82% and 6% mortality in the morning and at night, respectively). A significant daily rhythm was detected with the acrophase located at “zeitgeber” time (ZT) = 04:22 h. Behavioural tests exposing zebrafish to 1% ethanol provoked a major decrease in swimming activity (68–84.2% reduction) at ZT2, ZT6 and ZT10. In contrast, exposure at ZT18 stimulated swimming activity (27% increase). During the day fish moved towards the bottom of the tank during ethanol exposure, whereas at night zebrafish increased their activity levels right after the exposure to ethanol. Genes involved in ethanol detoxification failed to show significant daily rhythms in LD, although all of them exhibited circadian regulation in constant darkness (DD) with acrophases in phase and located at the end of the subjective night. Taken altogether, this research revealed the importance of considering the time of day when designing and carrying out toxicological and behavioural tests to investigate the effects of ethanol, as the adverse effects of this drug were more marked when fish were exposed in the morning than at night.|
|Rights:||© 2018 Vera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited|
|journal.pone.0190406.pdf||Fulltext - Published Version||1.96 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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