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Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: The Glasgow Outcome Scale -- 40 years of application and refinement
Author(s): McMillan, Tom
Wilson, J T Lindsay
Ponsford, Jennie
Levin, Harvey
Teasdale, Graham
Bond, Michael
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Keywords: brain injuries
outcomes research
Issue Date: Aug-2016
Citation: McMillan T, Wilson JTL, Ponsford J, Levin H, Teasdale G & Bond M (2016) The Glasgow Outcome Scale -- 40 years of application and refinement, Nature Reviews Neurology, 12 (8), pp. 477-485.
Abstract: The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was first published in 1975 by Bryan Jennett and Michael Bond. With over 4,000 citations to the original paper, it is the most highly cited outcome measure in studies of brain injury and the second most-cited paper in clinical neurosurgery. The original GOS and the subsequently developed extended GOS (GOSE) are recommended by several national bodies as the outcome measure for major trauma and for head injury. The enduring appeal of the GOS is linked to its simplicity, short administration time, reliability and validity, stability, flexibility of administration (face-to-face, over the telephone and by post), cost-free availability and ease of access. These benefits apply to other derivatives of the scale, including the Glasgow Outcome at Discharge Scale (GODS) and the GOS paediatric revision. The GOS was devised to provide an overview of outcome and to focus on social recovery. Since the initial development of the GOS, there has been an increasing focus on the multidimensional nature of outcome after head injury. This Review charts the development of the GOS, its refinement and usage over the past 40 years, and considers its current and future roles in developing an understanding of brain injury.
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Rights: This item has been embargoed for a period. During the embargo please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study. Publisher policy allows this work to be made available in this repository. Published in Nature Reviews Neurology, 12, 477-485, published 15/07/2016 by Springer Nature. The original publication is available at:

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