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dc.contributor.authorMoore, Simon C-
dc.contributor.authorWood, Alex M-
dc.contributor.authorMoore, Laurence-
dc.contributor.authorShepherd, Jonathan-
dc.contributor.authorMurphy, Simon-
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Gordon D A-
dc.description.abstractBackground:  A rank based social norms model predicts that drinkers’ judgements about their drinking will be based on the rank of their breath alcohol level amongst that of others in the immediate environment, rather than their actual breath alcohol level, with lower relative rank associated with greater feelings of safety. This study tested this hypothesis and examined how people judge their levels of drunkenness and the health consequences of their drinking whilst they are intoxicated in social drinking environments.  Methods:  Breath alcohol testing of 1,862 people (mean age=26.96 years; 61.86% male) in drinking environments. A subset (N =400) also answered four questions asking about their perceptions of their drunkenness and the health consequences of their drinking (plus background measures).  Results:  Perceptions of drunkenness and the health consequences of drinking were regressed on: (a) breath alcohol level, (b) the rank of the breath alcohol level amongst that of others in the same environment, and (c) covariates. Only rank of breath alcohol level predicted perceptions: How drunk they felt (b 3.78, 95% CI 1.69 5.87), how extreme they regarded their drinking that night (b 3.7, 95% CI 1.3 6.20), how at risk their long-term health was due to their current level of drinking (b 4.1, 95% CI 0.2 8.0) and how likely they felt they would experience liver cirrhosis (b 4.8. 95% CI 0.7 8.8). People were more influenced by more sober others than by more drunk others.  Conclusion:  Whilst intoxicated and in drinking environments, people base judgements regarding their drinking on how their level of intoxication ranks relative to that of others of the same gender around them, not on their actual levels of intoxication. Thus, when in the company of others who are intoxicated, drinkers were found to be more likely to underestimate their own level of drinking, drunkenness and associated risks. The implications of these results, for example that increasing the numbers of sober people in night time economies could improve subjective assessments of drunkenness, are discussed.en_UK
dc.publisherBioMed Central-
dc.relationMoore SC, Wood AM, Moore L, Shepherd J, Murphy S & Brown GDA (2016) A Rank Based Social Norms Model of How People Judge Their Levels of Drunkenness Whilst Intoxicated, BMC Public Health, 16 (1), Art. No.: 798.-
dc.rights© Moore et al. 2016 This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.-
dc.subjectSocial normsen_UK
dc.subjectDecision by samplingen_UK
dc.subjectRelative rank hypothesisen_UK
dc.titleA Rank Based Social Norms Model of How People Judge Their Levels of Drunkenness Whilst Intoxicateden_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleBMC Public Health-
dc.type.statusPublisher version (final published refereed version)-
dc.contributor.affiliationCardiff University-
dc.contributor.affiliationManagement Work and Organisation-
dc.contributor.affiliationCardiff University-
dc.contributor.affiliationCardiff University-
dc.contributor.affiliationCardiff University-
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Warwick-
Appears in Collections:Management, Work and Organisation Journal Articles

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