Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: A Comparison of Maternal versus Paternal Nonverbal Behavior During Child Pain
Author(s): Schinkel, Meghan
Chambers, Christine T
Caes, Line
Moon, Erin C
Contact Email:
Keywords: child
nonverbal behavior
parental behavior
Issue Date: Jan-2017
Citation: Schinkel M, Chambers CT, Caes L & Moon EC (2017) A Comparison of Maternal versus Paternal Nonverbal Behavior During Child Pain, Pain Practice, 17 (1), pp. 41-51.
Abstract: Parental behavior plays a significant role in children's pain response. Prior research has found generally no differences between mothers’ and fathers’ verbal behavior during child pain. This study compared mothers’ and fathers’ nonverbal behavior during child pain. Nonverbal behavior of mothers (n= 39) and fathers (n= 39) of 39 children (20 boys) aged 8 to 12 years who participated in the cold pressor task (counterbalanced once with each parent) was coded. A range of nonverbal behaviors were coded, including distraction, physical proximity, physical comfort/reassurance, procedure-related attending behavior, and fidgeting. The most common behaviors parents engaged in were fidgeting, procedure-related attending behaviors, and physical proximity. Results indicated that the types of nonverbal behavior parents engage in did not differ between mothers and fathers. However, children of mothers who engaged in more physical comfort/reassurance reported higher levels of pain intensity, and children of mothers who engaged in more procedure-related attending behaviors had lower pain tolerance. Further, both mothers and fathers who engaged in higher levels of verbal nonattending behaviors also engaged in lower levels of nonverbal procedure-related attending behaviors. These findings further support the importance of considering the influence of mothers and fathers in children's pain, and provide novel insights into the role of nonverbal behavior.
DOI Link:
Rights: This item has been embargoed for a period. During the embargo please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Schinkel, M. G., Chambers, C. T., Caes, L. and Moon, E. C. (2017), A Comparison of Maternal versus Paternal Nonverbal Behavior During Child Pain. Pain Pract, 17: 41–51, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Schinkel, Chambers et al., 2016 (1).pdf361.23 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

This item is protected by original copyright

Items in the Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.