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Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Stressors, Appraisal of Stressors, Experienced Stress and Cardiac Response: A Real-Time, Real-Life Investigation of Work Stress in Nurses
Author(s): Johnston, Derek W
Bell, Cheryl
Jones, Martyn C
Farquharson, Barbara
Allan, Julia L
Schofield, Patricia
Ricketts, Ian
Johnston, Marie
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Keywords: Demand-control model
Effort-reward imbalance
Occupational stress
Heart rate
Ecological momentary assessment
Issue Date: Apr-2016
Date Deposited: 4-May-2016
Citation: Johnston DW, Bell C, Jones MC, Farquharson B, Allan JL, Schofield P, Ricketts I & Johnston M (2016) Stressors, Appraisal of Stressors, Experienced Stress and Cardiac Response: A Real-Time, Real-Life Investigation of Work Stress in Nurses. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 50 (2), pp. 187-197.
Abstract: Background  Stress in health care professionals may reflect both the work and appraisal of work and impacts on the individuals, their patients, colleagues and managers.  Purpose  The purpose of the present study is to examine physiological and psychological effects of stressors (tasks) and theory-based perceptions of work stressors within and between nurses in real time.  Methods  During two work shifts, 100 nurses rated experienced stress, affect, fatigue, theory-based measures of work stress and nursing tasks on electronic diaries every 90min, whereas heart rate and activity were measured continuously.  Results  Heart rate was associated with both demand and effort. Experienced stress was related to demand, control, effort and reward. Effort and reward interacted as predicted (but only within people). Results were unchanged when allowance was made for work tasks.  Conclusions  Real-time appraisals were more important than actual tasks in predicting both psychological and physiological correlates of stress. At times when effort was high, perceived reward reduced stress.
DOI Link: 10.1007/s12160-015-9746-8
Rights: Copyright The Authors 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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