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Appears in Collections:Aquaculture Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Comparing the transcriptomes of embryos from domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) stocks and examining factors that influence heritability of gene expression
Author(s): Bicskei, Beatrix
Taggart, John
Glover, Kevin A
Bron, James
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Issue Date: 17-Mar-2016
Citation: Bicskei B, Taggart J, Glover KA & Bron J (2016) Comparing the transcriptomes of embryos from domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) stocks and examining factors that influence heritability of gene expression, Genetics Selection Evolution, 48, Art. No.: 20.
Abstract: Background  Due to selective breeding, domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon are genetically diverged, which raises concerns about farmed escapees having the potential to alter the genetic composition of wild populations and thereby disrupting local adaptation. Documenting transcriptional differences between wild and domesticated stocks under controlled conditions is one way to explore the consequences of domestication and selection. We compared the transcriptomes of wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon embryos, by using a custom 44k oligonucleotide microarray to identify perturbed gene pathways between the two stocks, and to document the inheritance patterns of differentially-expressed genes by examining gene expression in their reciprocal hybrids.  Results  Data from 24 array interrogations were analysed: four reciprocal cross types (W♀×W♂, D♀×W♂; W♀×D♂, D♀×D♂)×six biological replicates. A common set of 31,491 features on the microarrays passed quality control, of which about 62% were assigned a KEGG Orthology number. A total of 6037 distinct genes were identified for gene-set enrichment/pathway analysis. The most highly enriched functional groups that were perturbed between the two stocks were cellular signalling and immune system, ribosome and RNA transport, and focal adhesion and gap junction pathways, relating to cell communication and cell adhesion molecules. Most transcripts that were differentially expressed between the stocks were governed by additive gene interaction (33 to 42%). Maternal dominance and over-dominance were also prevalent modes of inheritance, with no convincing evidence for a stock effect.  Conclusions  Our data indicate that even at this relatively early developmental stage, transcriptional differences exist between the two stocks and affect pathways that are relevant to wild versus domesticated environments. Many of the identified differentially perturbed pathways are involved in organogenesis, which is expected to be an active process at the eyed egg stage. The dominant effects are more largely due to the maternal line than to the origin of the stock. This finding is particularly relevant in the context of potential introgression between farmed and wild fish, since female escapees tend to have a higher spawning success rate compared to males.
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Rights: © Bicskei et al. 2016 This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​4.​0/​), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://​creativecommons.​org/​publicdomain/​zero/​1.​0/​) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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