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dc.contributor.authorKrabbendam, Maartenen_UK
dc.contributor.authorEyles, Nicken_UK
dc.contributor.authorPutkinen, Nikoen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBradwell, Tomen_UK
dc.contributor.authorArbelaez-Moreno, Linaen_UK
dc.description.abstractFast-flowing ice streams occur within modern ice sheets and also operated in Pleistocene ice sheets. The reconstruction of palaeo-ice streams normally relies on the mapping of mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGLs) and drumlins composed of soft sediment, mainly till. Analysis of new satellite imagery and digital terrain models, demonstrates the presence of large fields of kilometre-scale glacial lineations comprising rock drumlins, megagrooves and megaridges. In this paper we describe and analyse a number of such ‘hard-bed’ landform systems from the former Laurentide and British–Irish ice sheets, occurring in a variety of palaeo-ice stream settings. These are attributed to erosion of crystalline and sedimentary rock below fast flowing ice streams. Bedrock properties such as hardness, fracture spacing and bedding and their orientation with respect to ice flow have a profound effect on the occurrence and character of elongate rock bedforms. Elongate streamlined forms on hard crystalline rock, as on the Canadian Shield, only form under special circumstances; in contrast, sedimentary strata are highly susceptible to form streamlined hard beds, specifically if bedrock strike is parallel to ice flow. Large-scale elongate rock bedforms are erosional in origin, formed by preferentially focused abrasion or by lateral plucking, depending on bedrock type. Many palaeo-ice stream footprints previously mapped in the Laurentide Ice Sheet on the basis of soft-bed bedforms are shown to be significantly larger, extending up-ice across sedimentary strata and onto Precambrian crystalline rocks. Hard-bed streamlined forms further show that ice streaming does not necessitate a deformable bed, but can equally occur on smooth hard beds.en_UK
dc.relationKrabbendam M, Eyles N, Putkinen N, Bradwell T & Arbelaez-Moreno L (2016) Streamlined hard beds formed by palaeo-ice streams: A review. <i>Sedimentary Geology</i>, 338, pp. 24-50.
dc.rightsCopyright 2015 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
dc.subjectRock drumlinen_UK
dc.subjectGlacial geomorphologyen_UK
dc.subjectHard-bed landsystemen_UK
dc.titleStreamlined hard beds formed by palaeo-ice streams: A reviewen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleSedimentary Geologyen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBritish Geological Surveyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Torontoen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationU.S. Geological Surveyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Torontoen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorKrabbendam, Maarten|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorEyles, Nick|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorPutkinen, Niko|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBradwell, Tom|0000-0003-0947-3309en_UK
local.rioxx.authorArbelaez-Moreno, Lina|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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