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dc.contributor.authorOliver, David-
dc.contributor.authorHanley, Nicholas-
dc.contributor.authorVan, Niekerk Melanie-
dc.contributor.authorKay, Dave-
dc.contributor.authorHeathwaite, Louise-
dc.contributor.authorRabinovici, Sharyl-
dc.contributor.authorKinzelman, Julie-
dc.contributor.authorFleming, Lora-
dc.contributor.authorPorter, Jonathan-
dc.contributor.authorShaikh, Sabina-
dc.contributor.authorFish, Rob-
dc.contributor.authorChilton, Sue-
dc.contributor.authorHewitt, Julie-
dc.contributor.authorConnolly, Elaine-
dc.contributor.authorQuilliam, Richard-
dc.description.abstractThe use of molecular tools, principally qPCR, versus traditional culture-based methods for quantifying microbial parameters (e.g., Fecal Indicator Organisms) in bathing waters generates considerable ongoing debate at the science–policy interface. Advances in science have allowed the development and application of molecular biological methods for rapid (~2h) quantification of microbial pollution in bathing and recreational waters. In contrast, culture-based methods can take between 18 and 96h for sample processing. Thus, molecular tools offer an opportunity to provide a more meaningful statement of microbial risk to water-users by providing near-real-time information enabling potentially more informed decision-making with regard to water-based activities. However, complementary studies concerning the potential costs and benefits of adopting rapid methods as a regulatory tool are in short supply. We report on findings from an international Working Group that examined the breadth of social impacts, challenges, and research opportunities associated with the application of molecular tools to bathing water regulations.en_UK
dc.relationOliver D, Hanley N, Van Niekerk M, Kay D, Heathwaite L, Rabinovici S, Kinzelman J, Fleming L, Porter J, Shaikh S, Fish R, Chilton S, Hewitt J, Connolly E & Quilliam R (2016) Molecular tools for bathing water assessment in Europe: balancing social science research with a rapidly developing environmental science evidence-base, AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 45 (1), pp. 52-62.-
dc.rightsThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.-
dc.subjectBathing Water Directiveen_UK
dc.subjectFecal indicator organismen_UK
dc.subjectMicrobial pollutionen_UK
dc.subjectPublic perceptionen_UK
dc.subjectRecreational water qualityen_UK
dc.subjectRisk communicationen_UK
dc.titleMolecular tools for bathing water assessment in Europe: balancing social science research with a rapidly developing environmental science evidence-baseen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleAMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment-
dc.type.statusPublisher version (final published refereed version)-
dc.description.notesAdditional co-authors: Andy Cummins, Klaus Glenk, Calum McPhail, Eric McRory, Alistair McVittie, Amanna Giles, Suzanne Roberts, Dugald Tinch, Ted Thairs, Andy J. A. Vinten, Bill D. Wattsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciences-
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciences-
dc.contributor.affiliationAberystwyth University-
dc.contributor.affiliationLancaster University-
dc.contributor.affiliationCity of Racine - Health Department-
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Exeter-
dc.contributor.affiliationEnvironment Agency-
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Chicago-
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Kent-
dc.contributor.affiliationNewcastle University-
dc.contributor.affiliationU.S. Environmental Protection Agency-
dc.contributor.affiliationDepartment for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)-
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciences-
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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