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dc.contributor.advisorLittle, Anthony-
dc.contributor.authorKnowles, Kristen-
dc.description.abstractVoices are used as a vehicle for language, and variation in the acoustic properties of voices also contains information about the speaker. Listeners use measurable qualities, such as pitch and formant traits, as cues to a speaker’s physical stature and attractiveness. Emotional states and personality characteristics are also judged from vocal stimuli. The research contained in this thesis examines vocal masculinity, aesthetics and personality, with an emphasis on the perception of prosocial traits including trustworthiness and cooperativeness. I will also explore themes which are more cognitive in nature, testing aspects of vocal stimuli which may affect trait attribution, memory and the ascription of identity. Chapters 2 and 3 explore systematic differences across vocal utterances, both in types of utterance using different classes of stimuli and across the time course of perception of the auditory signal. These chapters examine variation in acoustic measurements in addition to variation in listener attributions of commonly-judged speaker traits. The most important result from this work was that evaluations of attractiveness made using spontaneous speech correlated with those made using scripted speech recordings, but did not correlate with those made of the same persons using vowel stimuli. This calls into question the use of sustained vowel sounds for the attainment of ratings of subjective characteristics. Vowel and single-word stimuli are also quite short – while I found that attributions of masculinity were reliable at very short exposure times, more subjective traits like attractiveness and trustworthiness require a longer exposure time to elicit reliable attributions. I conclude with recommending an exposure time of at least 5 seconds in duration for such traits to be reliably assessed. Chapter 4 examines what vocal traits affect perceptions of pro-social qualities using both natural and manipulated variation in voices. While feminine pitch traits (F0 and F0-SD) were linked to cooperativeness ratings, masculine formant traits (Df and Pf) were also associated with cooperativeness. The relative importance of these traits as social signals is discussed. Chapter 5 questions what makes a voice memorable, and helps to differentiate between memory for individual voice identities and for the content which was spoken by administering recognition tests both within and across sensory modalities. While the data suggest that experimental manipulation of voice pitch did not influence memory for vocalised stimuli, attractive male voices were better remembered than unattractive voices, independent of pitch manipulation. Memory for cross-modal (textual) content was enhanced by raising the voice pitch of both male and female speakers. I link this pattern of results to the perceived dominance of voices which have been raised and lowered in pitch, and how this might impact how memories are formed and retained. Chapter 6 examines masculinity across visual and auditory sensory modalities using a cross-modal matching task. While participants were able to match voices to muted videos of both male and female speakers at rates above chance, and to static face images of men (but not women), differences in masculinity did not influence observers in their judgements, and voice and face masculinity were not correlated. These results are discussed in terms of the generally-accepted theory that masculinity and femininity in faces and voices communicate the same underlying genetic quality. The biological mechanisms by which vocal and facial masculinity could develop independently are speculated.en_GB
dc.publisherUniversity of Stirlingen_GB
dc.subjectvoice pitchen_GB
dc.subjectevolutionary psychologyen_GB
dc.subjectformant frequenciesen_GB
dc.subjectpitch variationen_GB
dc.subject.lcshVoice Psychological aspectsen_GB
dc.subject.lcshVoice Physiological aspectsen_GB
dc.subject.lcshVocal registersen_GB
dc.subject.lcshEvolutionary psychologyen_GB
dc.subject.lcshIdentity (Philosophical concept) Psychological aspectsen_GB
dc.titleEvolutionary and Cognitive Approaches to Voice Perception in Humans: Acoustic Properties, Personality and Aestheticsen_GB
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen_GB
dc.relation.referencesScherer (1989) Figure 1.1 herein -- Scherer, K. R. (1989). Vocal Correlates of Emotional Arousal and Affective Disturbance. In H. L. Wagner & A. S. R. Manstead (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychophysiology (pp. 165–197). Oxford: Wiley.en_GB
dc.relation.referencesGray (1918) Figure 1.2 herein -- Gray, H. (1918). Gray’s Anatomy (20th ed., p. 1079). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.en_GB
dc.relation.referencesNegus (1949) Figure 1.3 herein -- Negus, V. E. (1949). The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Larynx. New York: Hafner.en_GB
dc.type.qualificationnameDoctor of Philosophyen_GB
dc.rights.embargoreasonI am writing up chapters of this thesis for publication.en_GB
Appears in Collections:Psychology eTheses

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