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dc.contributor.authorFeldpausch, Ted Ren_UK
dc.contributor.authorLloyd, Jonen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLewis, Simon Len_UK
dc.contributor.authorBrienen, Roel J Wen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGloor, Manuelen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMonteagudo Mendoza, Abelen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLopez-Gonzalez, Gabrielaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBanin, Lindsayen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAbu Salim, Kamariahen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAffum-Baffoe, Kofien_UK
dc.contributor.authorAlexiades, Miguelen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAlmeida, Samuelen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAmaral, Iedaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAndrade, Anaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorWhite, Leeen_UK
dc.description.abstractAbove-ground tropical tree biomass and carbon storage estimates commonly ignore tree height. We estimate the effect of incorporating height (H) on forest biomass estimates using 37 625 concomitant H and diameter measurements (n = 327 plots) and 1816 harvested trees (n = 21 plots) tropics-wide to answer the following questions: 1. For trees of known biomass (from destructive harvests) which H-model form and geographic scale (plot, region, and continent) most reduces biomass estimate uncertainty? 2. How much does including H relationship estimates derived in (1) reduce uncertainty in biomass estimates across 327 plots spanning four continents? 3. What effect does the inclusion of H in biomass estimates have on plot- and continental-scale forest biomass estimates? The mean relative error in biomass estimates of the destructively harvested trees was half (mean 0.06) when including H, compared to excluding H (mean 0.13). The power- and Weibull-H asymptotic model provided the greatest reduction in uncertainty, with the regional Weibull-H model preferred because it reduces uncertainty in smaller-diameter classes that contain the bulk of biomass per hectare in most forests. Propagating the relationships from destructively harvested tree biomass to each of the 327 plots from across the tropics shows errors are reduced from 41.8 Mg ha-1 (range 6.6 to 112.4) to 8.0 Mg ha-1 (-2.5 to 23.0) when including $H$. For all plots, above-ground live biomass was 52.2±17.3 Mg ha-1 lower when including H estimates (13%), with the greatest reductions in estimated biomass in Brazilian Shield forests and relatively no change in the Guyana Shield, central Africa and southeast Asia. We show fundamentally different stand structure across the four forested tropical continents, which affects biomass reductions due to $H$. African forests store a greater portion of total biomass in large-diameter trees and trees are on average larger in diameter. This contrasts to forests on all other continents where smaller-diameter trees contain the greatest fractions of total biomass. After accounting for variation in $H$, total biomass per hectare is greatest in Australia, the Guyana Shield, and Asia and lowest in W. Africa, W. Amazonia, and the Brazilian Shield (descending order). Thus, if closed canopy tropical forests span 1668 million km2 and store 285 Pg C, then the overestimate is 35 Pg C if H is ignored, and the sampled plots are an unbiased statistical representation of all tropical forest in terms of biomass and height factors. Our results show that tree $H$ is an important allometric factor that needs to be included in future forest biomass estimates to reduce error in estimates of pantropical carbon stocks and emissions due to deforestation.en_UK
dc.publisherEuropean Geosciences Unionen_UK
dc.relationFeldpausch TR, Lloyd J, Lewis SL, Brienen RJW, Gloor M, Monteagudo Mendoza A, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Banin L, Abu Salim K, Affum-Baffoe K, Alexiades M, Almeida S, Amaral I, Andrade A & White L (2012) Tree height integrated into pan-tropical forest biomass estimates. Biogeosciences, 9 (8), pp. 3381-3403.
dc.rights© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.en_UK
dc.titleTree height integrated into pan-tropical forest biomass estimatesen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.description.notesAdditional co-authors: L. E. O. C. Aragão, A. Araujo Murakami, E. J. M. M. Arets, L. Arroyo, G. A. Aymard C., T. R. Baker, O. S. Bánki, N. J. Berry, N. Cardozo, J. Chave, J. A. Comiskey, E. A. Dávila, A. de Oliveira, A. DiFiore, G. Djagbletey, T. F. Domingues, T. L. Erwin, P. M. Fearnside, M. B. França, M.A. Freitas, N. Higuchi, E. Honorio C., Y. Iida, E. Jiménez, A. R. Kassim, T. J. Killeen, W. F. Laurance, J. C. Lovett, Y. Malhi, B. S. Marimon, B. H. Marimon-Junior, E. Lenza, A. R. Marshall, C. Mendoza, D. J. Metcalfe, E. T. A. Mitchard, B. W. Nelson, R. Nilus, E. M. Nogueira, A. Parada, K. S.-H. Peh, A. Pena Cruz, M. C. Peñuela, N. C. A. Pitman, A. Prieto, C.A. Quesada, F. Ramírez, H. Ramírez-Angulo, J. M. Reitsma, A. Rudas, G. Saiz, R. P. Salomão, M. Schwarz, N. Silva, J. E. Silva-Espejo, M. Silveira, B. Sonké, J. Stropp, H. E. Taedoumg, S. Tan, H. ter Steege, J. Terborgh, M. Torello-Raventos, G. M. F. van der Heijden, R. Vásquez, E. Vilanova, V. Vos, S. Wilcock, H. Woell, and O. L. Phillipsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Leedsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Leedsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Leedsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Leedsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Leedsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationMissouri Botanical Garden - Peruen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Leedsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationCentre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Brunei Darussalamen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationForestry Commission of Ghanaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationThe New York Botanical Gardenen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationGoeldi Museumen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNational Institute for Amazonian Researchen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNational Institute for Amazonian Researchen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorFeldpausch, Ted R|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorLloyd, Jon|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorLewis, Simon L|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBrienen, Roel J W|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGloor, Manuel|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMonteagudo Mendoza, Abel|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorLopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBanin, Lindsay|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAbu Salim, Kamariah|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAffum-Baffoe, Kofi|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAlexiades, Miguel|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAlmeida, Samuel|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAmaral, Ieda|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAndrade, Ana|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorWhite, Lee|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
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