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dc.contributor.authorGraham, Max Den_UK
dc.contributor.authorDouglas-Hamilton, Iainen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAdams, William Men_UK
dc.contributor.authorLee, Phyllis Cen_UK
dc.description.abstractLand outside of gazetted protected areas is increasingly seen as important to the future of elephant persistence in Africa. However, other than inferential studies on crop raiding, very little is understood about how elephants Loxodonta africana use and are affected by human-occupied landscapes. This is largely a result of restrictions in technology, which made detailed assessments of elephant movement outside of protected areas challenging. Recent advances in radio telemetry have changed this, enabling researchers to establish over a 24-h period where tagged animals spend their time. We assessed the movement of 13 elephants outside of gazetted protected areas across a range of land-use types on the Laikipia plateau in north-central Kenya. The elephants monitored spent more time at night than during the day in areas under land use that presented a risk of mortality associated with human occupants. The opposite pattern was found on large-scale ranches where elephants were tolerated. Furthermore, speed of movement was found to be higher where elephants were at risk. These results demonstrate that elephants facultatively alter their behaviour to avoid risk in human-dominated landscapes. This helps them to maintain connectivity between habitat refugia in fragmented land-use mosaics, possibly alleviating some of the potential negative impacts of fragmentation. At the same time, however, it allows elephants to penetrate smallholder farmland to raid crops. The greater the amount of smallholder land within an elephant's range, the more it was utilized, with consequent implications for conflict. These findings underscore the importance of (1) land-use planning to maintain refugia; (2) incentives to prevent further habitat fragmentation; (3) the testing and application of conflict mitigation measures where fragmentation has already taken place.en_UK
dc.publisherWiley-Blackwell / The Zoological Society of Londonen_UK
dc.relationGraham MD, Douglas-Hamilton I, Adams WM & Lee PC (2009) The movement of African elephants in a human-dominated land-use mosaic. Animal Conservation, 12 (5), pp. 445-455.
dc.rightsThe publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author; you can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.en_UK
dc.subjectAfrican elephanten_UK
dc.subjectland-use mosaicen_UK
dc.subjectrisk managementen_UK
dc.subjectranging behaviouren_UK
dc.subjectGPS trackingen_UK
dc.subjecthuman-elephant conflicten_UK
dc.subjectAfrican elephant Behavioren_UK
dc.subjectAfrican elephant Conservation Africaen_UK
dc.subjectHuman-animal relationshipsen_UK
dc.titleThe movement of African elephants in a human-dominated land-use mosaicen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.rights.embargoreason[Graham et al 2009.pdf] The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository therefore there is an embargo on the full text of the work.en_UK
dc.citation.jtitleAnimal Conservationen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Cambridgeen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSave The Elephantsen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Cambridgeen_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorGraham, Max D|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorDouglas-Hamilton, Iain|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAdams, William M|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorLee, Phyllis C|0000-0002-4296-3513en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
local.rioxx.filenameGraham et al 2009.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles

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