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dc.contributor.authorTyler, Andrewen_UK
dc.contributor.authorDale, Paulen_UK
dc.contributor.authorCopplestone, Daviden_UK
dc.contributor.authorBradley, Stuarten_UK
dc.contributor.authorEwen, Helenen_UK
dc.contributor.authorScott, E Marianen_UK
dc.description.abstractThe manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 (226Ra) and lead-210 (210Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial ‘stomach' solutions compared with ‘lower intestine' solutions. The combined ‘gut' solubility for 226Ra and apparent 210Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100 mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source activities necessary to deliver 100 mSv to the full age range of users of the foreshore were estimated. All the estimated activities have been detected and recovered through routine monitoring.en_UK
dc.relationTyler A, Dale P, Copplestone D, Bradley S, Ewen H & Scott EM (2013) The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials. Environment International, 59, pp. 449-455.
dc.rightsPublished in Environment International by Elsevier; Elsevier believes that individual authors should be able to distribute their accepted author manuscripts for their personal voluntary needs and interests, e.g. posting to their websites or their institution’s repository, e-mailing to colleagues. The Elsevier Policy is as follows: Authors retain the right to use the accepted author manuscript for personal use, internal institutional use and for permitted scholarly posting provided that these are not for purposes of commercial use or systematic distribution. An "accepted author manuscript" is the author’s version of the manuscript of an article that has been accepted for publication and which may include any author-incorporated changes suggested through the processes of submission processing, peer review, and editor-author communications.en_UK
dc.subjectContaminated landen_UK
dc.subjectCommitted effective doseen_UK
dc.subjectHot particlesen_UK
dc.subjectDalgety Bayen_UK
dc.titleThe radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materialsen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleEnvironment Internationalen_UK
dc.type.statusAM - Accepted Manuscripten_UK
dc.contributor.funderScottish Environment Protection Agencyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
dc.relation.funderprojectStandby monitoring services for radionuclides - Dalgety Bayen_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorTyler, Andrew|0000-0003-0604-5827en_UK
local.rioxx.authorDale, Paul|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorCopplestone, David|0000-0002-1468-9545en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBradley, Stuart|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorEwen, Helen|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorScott, E Marian|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectR90102FRA|Scottish Environment Protection Agency|
local.rioxx.filenameThe Radium Legacy revised.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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