Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Long-term outcome of eight clinical trials of CBT for anxiety disorders: Symptom profile of sustained recovery and treatment-resistant groups
Author(s): Durham, Robert C
Higgins, Cassie
Chambers, Julie
Swan, John S
Dow, Michael
Contact Email:
Keywords: Long-term follow-up
Anxiety disorders
Chronic anxiety
Chronic depression
Issue Date: Feb-2012
Date Deposited: 22-Apr-2014
Citation: Durham RC, Higgins C, Chambers J, Swan JS & Dow M (2012) Long-term outcome of eight clinical trials of CBT for anxiety disorders: Symptom profile of sustained recovery and treatment-resistant groups. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136 (3), pp. 875-881.
Abstract: Background: Few clinical trials of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders have conducted follow-up beyond one year post-treatment. This paper summarises the long-term outcome of eight clinical trials of CBT for anxiety disorders in terms of diagnostic status, healthcare usage and symptom severity and compares the symptom profile of participants with the best and worst outcomes relative to chronic depression and the normal population. Methods: Follow-up at 2-14 years with 396 patients (51% of those available to contact) employed structured diagnostic interview, assessment of healthcare usage and self-report measures of symptom severity. This paper concerns 336 participants who had either no disorder or at least one anxiety disorder and information on healthcare usage over the follow-up period. Results: Only 38% recovered with little or no treatment over the follow-up period while 30% had a very poor outcome despite extensive treatment for anxiety over many years. The symptom profile of this ‘treatment-resistant' group was comparable to 76 patients with chronic depression and significantly worse than normative data for psychiatric outpatients. Chronic anxiety disorder with co-morbid depression has a more severe symptom profile than chronic anxiety disorder alone. Limitations: The follow-up sample, although broadly representative, may have a bias towards a more favourable picture of overall outcome. Conclusions: The long-term outcome of anxiety disorders, irrespective of diagnosis or active treatment, is diverse but with a tendency towards chronicity. Distinctions between acute and chronic presentations of common mental disorders are more important than distinctions between chronic anxiety and chronic depression.
DOI Link: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.09.017
Rights: The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.
Licence URL(s):

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
JAD 2012.pdfFulltext - Published Version409.95 kBAdobe PDFUnder Embargo until 2999-12-30    Request a copy

Note: If any of the files in this item are currently embargoed, you can request a copy directly from the author by clicking the padlock icon above. However, this facility is dependent on the depositor still being contactable at their original email address.

This item is protected by original copyright

Items in the Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

The metadata of the records in the Repository are available under the CC0 public domain dedication: No Rights Reserved

If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.