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Appears in Collections:Aquaculture Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Effect of functional feeds on fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism in liver and head kidney of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with experimentally induced Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation
Author(s): Martinez-Rubio, Laura
Morais, Sofia
Evensen, Oystein
Wadsworth, Simon
Vecino, Jose L G
Ruohonen, Kari
Bell, J Gordon
Tocher, Douglas R
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Keywords: Eicosanoids
Issue Date: Jun-2013
Citation: Martinez-Rubio L, Morais S, Evensen O, Wadsworth S, Vecino JLG, Ruohonen K, Bell JG & Tocher DR (2013) Effect of functional feeds on fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism in liver and head kidney of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with experimentally induced Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation, Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 34 (6), pp. 1533-1545.
Abstract: Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI) is an emerging viral disease caused by a novel Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV) affecting farmed fish. Primary symptoms associated with HSMI include myocardial and skeletal muscle necrosis indicating a severe inflammatory process. Recently, we applied the concept of clinical nutrition to moderate the long-term inflammatory process associated with HSMI in salmon subjected to experimental ASRV challenge. The use of functional feeds with lower lipid (hence energy) content reduced the inflammatory response to ASRV infection and the severity of associated heart lesions. The aim of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms underpinning the observed effects of the functional feeds, focussing on eicosanoid and fatty acid metabolism in liver and head kidney. Here we show that liver was also a site for histopathological lesions in HSMI showing steatosis reflecting impaired lipid metabolism. This study is also the first to evaluate the expression of a suite of key genes involved in pathways relating diet and membrane phospholipid fatty acid compositions, and the inflammatory response after ASRV infection. The expression of hepatic Δ6 and Δ5 desaturases was higher in fish fed the functional feeds, potentially increasing their capacity for endogenous production and availability of anti-inflammatory EPA. Effects on mobilization of lipids and changes in the LC-PUFA composition of membrane phospholipids, along with significant changes in the expression of the genes related to eicosanoid pathways, showed the important role of the head kidney in inflammatory diseases caused by viral infections. The results from the present study suggest that clinical nutrition through functional feeding could be an effective complementary therapy for emerging salmon viral diseases associated with long-term inflammation.
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Rights: Published in Fish & Shellfish Immunology by Elsevier; Elsevier believes that individual authors should be able to distribute their accepted author manuscripts for their personal voluntary needs and interests, e.g. posting to their websites or their institution’s repository, e-mailing to colleagues. The Elsevier Policy is as follows: Authors retain the right to use the accepted author manuscript for personal use, internal institutional use and for permitted scholarly posting provided that these are not for purposes of commercial use or systematic distribution. An "accepted author manuscript" is the author’s version of the manuscript of an article that has been accepted for publication and which may include any author-incorporated changes suggested through the processes of submission processing, peer review, and editor-author communications.

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