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dc.contributor.authorTipping, Richarden_UK
dc.contributor.authorTisdall, Eileenen_UK
dc.description.abstractThe landscape, environmental and land use changes before, during and after Antonine occupation are examined for the region of central Scotland between the Southern Uplands and the Grampian Highlands, principally from the published literature. The purpose is to synthesize and make available a range of new palaeoenvironmental data, to evaluate critically these new data-sets, to search for significant shifts in landscape or land use and to characterize their timings and effects, thus placing the Antonine occupation in a coherent landscape context. It is established that economic expansion in the region occurred in the later Iron Age, demonstrably before Roman military occupation. This expansion developed from Bronze Age and earlier Iron Age small-scale farms and gathered pace in the last cal 200–300 years BC, for crop growing as well as pasture, and was continued rather than intensified in the first two centuries cal AD. It is difficult to see differences in this economic expansion north and south of the Antonine Wall itself, or east and west of the Forth–Clyde isthmus, but it is tentatively suggested that in the foothills of the Southern Uplands the Romans entered a landscape already decaying. Roman influence is perhaps recognizable at some localities in a reduction of cereal production and the expansion of grazed pasture, assumed to represent a restructuring of the native economy to support a new market. It is presumed that imports of foodstuffs continued to be important to Roman forces during Antonine occupation, although possible reconstructions of the sediments in the Forth and Clyde estuaries suggest these may not have provided ideal harbours. There is little evidence that this increased pastoral economy imposed stresses on soils or plant communities, and the market seems to have been readily supplied within the agricultural capacity of the landscape. Nevertheless, the native economy was probably artificially buoyed by the Roman presence, and withdrawal eventually led to what is best described as an agricutural recession, not population collapse.en_UK
dc.publisherSociety of Antiquaries of Scotlanden_UK
dc.relationTipping R & Tisdall E (2005) The landscape context of the Antonine Wall: a review of the literature. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 135, pp. 443-469.
dc.rightsThe publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author; you can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.en_UK
dc.subjectAntonine Wallen_UK
dc.subjectcentral Scotlanden_UK
dc.subjectlandscape changeen_UK
dc.subjectClimate changing Scotlanden_UK
dc.subjectPaleoecology Scotlanden_UK
dc.subjectLandscape changesen_UK
dc.subjectAntonine Wall (Scotland)en_UK
dc.subjectScotland Antiquities, Romanen_UK
dc.titleThe landscape context of the Antonine Wall: a review of the literatureen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.rights.embargoreason[PSAS Antonine Wall.pdf] The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository therefore there is an embargo on the full text of the work.en_UK
dc.citation.jtitleProceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotlanden_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationBiological and Environmental Sciencesen_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorTipping, Richard|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorTisdall, Eileen|0000-0002-9902-4461en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
local.rioxx.filenamePSAS Antonine Wall.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles

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