|Appears in Collections:||Psychology Journal Articles|
|Peer Review Status:||Refereed|
|Title:||Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana)|
|Author(s):||Lee, Phyllis C|
Poole, Joyce H
Moss, Cynthia J
|Citation:||Lee PC, Bussiere L, Webber C, Poole JH & Moss CJ (2013) Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana), Biology Letters, 9 (2).|
|Abstract:||Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences.|
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