|Appears in Collections:||Psychology Journal Articles|
|Peer Review Status:||Refereed|
|Title:||Forest elephants: fission-fusion and social arenas|
Lee, Phyllis C
|Keywords:||African forest elephant|
Loxodonta africana cyclotis
|Citation:||Fishlock V & Lee PC (2013) Forest elephants: fission-fusion and social arenas, Animal Behaviour, 85 (2), pp. 357-363.|
|Abstract:||Fission-fusion systems provide models for studying grouping decisions and social complexity in a range of taxa, as individuals act to manage risks and enhance reproductive success. African savannah elephants, Loxodonta africana africana, live in a fluid society where individual relationships persist over decades and affect reproductive success. Social structures have yet to be fully characterized for forest elephants, Loxodonta africana cyclotis. Aggregations at natural forest clearings, which are frequent in this subspecies, may offer social benefits in addition to nutritional resources. We examined the social functions of aggregations in Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Republic of Congo. We tested whether clearings function as ‘social arenas' by examining how social opportunities affected the timing and duration of visits, and how short-term grouping decisions were affected by age, sex, group size and number of elephants present. Aggregations reflected a fission-fusion society similar to that observed in savannah elephants. Grouping patterns were largely unaffected by the number of elephants present, from which we infer that elephants were not acting to minimize competition. Social opportunities affected visit patterns such that visits were longer when others were present. Social opportunities were maximized by joining large groups, often including older elephants, or, for males, parties with females. Large and dynamically changing social groups in clearings offer potential for information exchange and the maintenance of social relationships. Demonstrating that fission-fusion operates in forest elephant society allows future research to focus on cost-benefit modelling, to understand the fitness consequences of these groupings.|
|Rights:||The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.|
|FISHLOCK - Forest elephants- fission_fusion and social arenas.pdf||328.72 kB||Adobe PDF||Under Permanent Embargo Request a copy|
Note: If any of the files in this item are currently embargoed, you can request a copy directly from the author by clicking the padlock icon above. However, this facility is dependent on the depositor still being contactable at their original email address.
This item is protected by original copyright
Items in the Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.
If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact email@example.com providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.